Ch 33 Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 33 Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders Deck (57):
1

Problems with prolonged nausea and vomiting

Dehydration
Electrolyte imbalances
Metabolic acidosis

2

Anorexia

Lack of appetite

3

Prolonged anorexia can result in?

Electrolyte imbalances
Cardiac dysrythmias

4

Nursing actions for anorexia

Document I&O
Vital signs
Electrolytes
Electrocardiogram
Rate of IV and tube feedings

5

Anorexia nervosa

Eating disorder

6

Anorexia nervosa signs and symptoms

Severe weight loss
Low self-esteem
Compulsive dieting
Altered body image

7

Progression in anorexia nervosa

Amenorrhea
Electrolyte imbalance
Dry skin and hair
Bradycardia
Hypothermia
Hypotension
Muscle wasting

8

Complications of anorexia nervosa

Decrease in pulse and blood pressure
Heart and renal failure
Osteoporosis and muscle loss
Vitamin and electrolyte imbalances
Diabetes (sugars are unstable if food is consumed or not consumed)

9

Theraputic measures for anorexia nervosa

Restore nutritional health
Medical and psychological counseling

10

Bulimia nervosa

Binge and purge

11

Signs and symptoms of bulimia nervosa

Enamel erosion in teeth
Vomiting frequently
Electrolyte imbalance
Dysrythmias
Heart failure

12

Therapeutic measure for Bulimia nervosa

Medical and psychological counseling

13

Obesity

BMI should be between 19-24

14

Therapeutic measure for obesity

Diet exercise
Medications to suppress appetite
Surgery

15

Roux-en-y

Restrictive and malabsorptive surgery

16

Stomatitis

Inflammation of the oral cavity

17

Most common form of stomatitis

Aphthous stomatitis (canker sores)
Herpes simplex virus type 1
Contagious

18

Oral cancer signs and symptoms

Ulcers that don't disappear after 2 weeks should be checked out
Painless then tender as it progresses
Difficulty chewing
Swallowing
Speaking
Swollen cervical lymph nodes

19

Esophageal cancer

Associated with use of tobacco and alcohol

20

Signs and symptoms of esophageal cancer

Dysphasia
Feeling of fullness
Pain in chest after eating
Foul breath
GERD if there is an obstruction

21

Diagnostic test for esophageal cancer

EGD-esophagogastroduodenoscopy
Biopsy

22

Therapeutic measures for esophageal cancer

Eradication
Chemo
Surgery

23

Hiatal hernia

Lower esophagus and stomache slides up and through the hiatus of the diaphragm into the thorax

24

Signs and symptoms of hiatus hernia

Lg hernias causes
Pain
Heartburn
Feeling of fullness
Reflux

25

Diagnostic test for hiatal hernia

X-ray
Fluoroscopy

26

Therapeutic measures for hiatal hernia

Antacids
Eating small meals
Not reclining 1 hr after eating
Elevating head of bed 6-12 inches
Avoid snacks at bed time
Smoking
Caffeine

27

Surgical management for hiatal hernia

Nissan fundoplication

28

Mallory-Weiss tear

Longitudinal tear in the mucous membrane of the esophagus at the stomach junction
Results from prolonged coughing
Vomiting
Seizures
CPR

29

Sign and symptom of Mallory-Weiss Tear

GI bleed

30

Diagnostic test for MWT

Hemoglobin and hematocrit
EGD

31

Acute gastritis

Mucosal barrier broken down and allows autodigestion from hydrochloric acid and pepsin to occur

Tissue edema and possible hemorrhage

32

Signs and symptoms of acute gastritis

Abdominal pain
Accompanied with nausea and anorexia
Abdominal tenderness
Feeling of fullness
Reflux
Belching
Hematemesis

33

Therapeutic measures for acute gastritis

Bland diet
Soft foods
Antacids
Medication to reduce vomiting

34

Chronic gastritis type A

Autoimmune
Occurs in the fundus
Can lead to pernicious anemia
Difficulty absorbing B12

35

Diagnostic test for chronic gastritis type A

Endoscopy
Upper GI X-ray
Gastric aspirate analysis


36

Chronic gastritis type B

Affects the Antrum and pyloris
Lower end of the stomach and near duodenum
Associated with helicobacter pylora bacterial infection
Most common

37

Signs and symptoms of chronic gastritis type B

Poor appetite
Heartburn
Belching
Sour taste in mouth
Nausea and vomiting

38

Diagnostic test for chronic gastritis type B

Endoscopy
Upper GI X-ray
Gastric aspirate analysis

39

Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)

Lining of the stomach, esophagus, duodenum, pyloris erodes

40

Signs and symptoms of PUD

Pain
Hemorrhage
Obstruction
Perforation

41

Diagnostic test for PUD

Urea breath test
Biopsy specimens for the Campylobacter-like organism (CLO)
Barium swallow
EGD

42

Therapeutic measures for peptic ulcers

Antibiotics
Proton pump inhibitor or H2 antagonist

43

Gastric bleeding

Ulcer perforation
Tumors
Gastric surgery

Most common in stomach and intestines

44

Signs and symptoms of gastric bleeding

Slight weakness or diaphoresis
Hypovolemic shock
Hypotension
Threads pulse
Chills
Palpitations

45

Therapeutic measures for GI bleed

Prevent hypovolemic shock
Prevent dehydration
Electrolyte imbalance

46

Treatment for GI bleed

NPO
IV line for fluids and blood
Hematocrit
Catheter for output
NG tube
Monitor pH
Decompress stomach

47

Gastric cancer

Malignant lesions found in the stomach
H. Pylor infection plays a role

48

Signs and symptoms of gastric cancer

Rarely diagnosed early
Indigestion
Anorexia
Pain relieved by antacid
Weight loss
Nausea
Vomiting
Anemia
Occult blood in stool

49

Diagnostic test for gastric cancer

Upper GI X-ray
Gastroscopy
Gastric fluid analysis
Measurement of serum gastrin levels

50

Therapeutic measures for gastric cancer

Surgery to relieve symptoms
Chemo and radiation but not effective

51

Dumping syndrome

Rapid entry of food into the jejunum w/o proper mixing of food with digestive juices

Extra cellular fluid into bowel from circulating bv to dilute high concentration of electrolytes and sugars
Decreases circulating bv

52

Symptoms of dumping syndrome

Dizziness
Tachycardia
Fainting
Sweating
Nausea
Diarrhea
Feeling of fullness
Abdominal cramping
Increase blood sugar
Hypoglycemia

53

Symptoms old hypoglycemia

Weakness
Sweating
Anxiety
Shakiness
Confusion
Tachycardia

54

Treatment for hypoglycemia

Eat sugary candy or sugar juice immediately

55

Treatment for dumping syndrome

Small frequent meals
High in protein and fat
Low in carbs
Avoid fluids 1 hr before, with, after meals or for 2 hours after meals
Lie down after meals

56

Pernicious anemia

B12 deficiency

57

Steatorrhea

Excessive fat in stools
Result of dumping syndrome
Controlled by reducing fat