ch 4 Flashcards Preview

PTA 105 Growth and Development > ch 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in ch 4 Deck (36)
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1

according to piaget, taking in information that is compatible with what is already known. Ie. Child discovers that their grasping scheme also works on blocks and toy cars

assimilation

2

according to piaget, changing existing knowledge based on new knowledge. Ie. Child using 2 hands to grasp heavy objects because 1 hand won't lift the item.

accommodation

3

according to piaget, mental structures that organize information and regulate behavior.

schemes

4

according to piaget, a process by which when disequilibrium occurs, children reorganize their schemes to return to a state of equilibrium.

equilibration

5

piaget's 4 cognitive stages:

- sensorimotor (infancy, birth to 2 yrs)

- preoperational (preschool and early-elementary-school yrs, 2 to 6 yo)

- concrete operational (middle and late elementary school years, 7 to 11 yo)

- formal operational (adolescence and adulthood, 11 yrs and up)

6

the understanding, acquired in infancy that objects exist independently

object permanence

7

Not until about ______ do infants fully understand object permanence

18 months

8

3 characteristics of preoperational thinking

- egocentrism
- centration ("tunnel vision")
- appearance as reality

9

mental and neural structures that are built in and that allow the mind to operate

mental hardware

10

mental "programs" that are the basis for performing particular tasks

mental software

11

processes that determine which information is processed further by an individual

attention

12

an individual views a strong or unfamiliar stimulus, and changes in heart rate and brain-wave activity occur

orienting response

13

becoming unresponsive to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly

habituation

14

a form of learning that involves pairing a neutral stimulus and a response originally produced by another stimulus. Ie an infant smiling when they hear a dog's collar because they know the dog is coming to play with them

classical conditioning

15

a form of learning in which reward and punishment determine the likelihood that a behavior will recur. Ie. When a baby smiles, an adult will hug a baby in return; this pleasing consequence makes the baby likely to smile again

operant conditioning

16

older children and up learn much by watching others behave. Ie. learning sports moves by watch professional athletes

imitation

17

the development of memory during the first 2 years reflects growth in these two different brain regions

- frontal cortex
- hippocampus

18

memories of the significant events and experiences of someone's own life. Can be reinforced by parents asking open ended questions to children to recall details of an event.

autobiographical memories

19

a counting principle that states that there must be one and only one number name for each object counted

one-to-one principle

20

a counting principle that states that number names must always be counted in the same order

stable-order principle

21

a counting principle in which the last number name denotes that number of objects being counted

cardinality principle

22

young children can often accomplish far more with some adult guidance than they can accomplish alone

Vygotsky's zone of proximal development

23

a style in which teachers gauge the amount of assistance they offer to match the learner's needs

scaffolding

24

a child's comments that are not intended for others but are designed instead to help regulate the child's behavior

private speech

25

unique sounds used to create words, making them the basic building blocks of language

phonemes

26

speech that adults use with infants that is slow, has exaggerated changes in pitch and volume, and is thought to aid language acquisition

infant-directed speech

27

early vowel-like sounds that babies produce

cooing

28

speech-like sounds that consist of vowel-consonant combinations and are common at about 6 months

babbling

29

a child's connections between words referents that are made so quickly that he or she cannot consider all possible meanings of the word

fast mapping

30

when children define words more narrowly than adults do

underextension