Ch 4 (Exam 1) Flashcards Preview

Pharm > Ch 4 (Exam 1) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 4 (Exam 1) Deck (87):
1

Name the two Autonomoic Nervous System Anatomy

Sympathetic Autonomic Nervous System (SANS)
Parasympathetic Autonomic Nervous Systems (PANS)

2

Cranial nerves and sacral segments of spinal cord are dealing with which Nervous System?

PANS

3

What are the cranial nerves and segments involved with PANS?

Cranial Nerves 3,7, 9 and 10
S2-S4 segments of spinal cord

4

What cranial nerve is 3?

Oculomotor nerve

5

What is cranial nerve 7?

Facial nerve

6

What cranial nerve is 9?

Glossopharyngeal nerve

7

What cranial nerve is 10?

Vagus nerve

8

Where do the pre and post ganglionic neuron meet?

Nictonic receptor

9

When the pupils are dilated the effect is termed?

Mydriasis

10

When pupils are constructed the effect is termed?

Miosis

11

The space between the preganglionic and postganglionic fibers is termed?

Synapse or synaptic cleft

12

Term for loss of vision?

Cycloplegia

13

Adverse reactions of Cholinergic agents

Increase Salivation
Increase Lacrimation
Urination
Defecation

14

Direct acting - acts like acetylcholine at receptor sites.
Indirecting acting- causes increase in amount of acetylcholine indirectly

Cholinergic Agent

15

Both ANS divisions consist of what fibers?

Afferent (sensory) fibers
Central Integrating Areas
Efferent (peripheral) Motor: preganglinoic and postganglionic motor fibers

16

Efferent motor nerve consist of both?

Preganglionic fiber
Postganglionic fiber

17

Originates in the central Nervous System (CNS) and passes out to form the ganglia at the synapse with the postgaglionic nerve?

Preganglionic neuron

18

Originates in the ganglia and innervates the effector organ or tissue?

Postganglionic neuron

19

Three acetylcholine (AcH) receptor sites?

PANS
Ganglionic
Neuromuscular junction

20

Side effects of Pilocarpine?

Perspiration (sweating)
Nausea
Rhinitis (stuffy nose)
Chills
Flushing

21

Pilocarpine (salagen) available in what?

5-mg tablets taken tid

22

Pilocarpine (IsoptoCarpine) used to treat glaucoma, by what route?

Topically

23

T/ F. Pilocarpine also available as ophthalmic solution in strengths ranging from 0.5% to 10%

True

24

T/F Cholinergic Agents: are choline esters and act directly to receptor.

True

25

Communication between nerves or between nerves and effector tissue takes place by the release of chemical neurotransmitter across the synaptic cleft?

Neurotransmitter

26

The neurotransmitter connected with PANS ?

Acetylcholine

27

The neurotransmitter associated with SANS ?

Norepinephrine (NE)

28

Effector organs in SANS ?

Smooth muscle
Heart
Exocrine glands

29

Effector organs in PANS?

Heart
Smooth muscle
Exocrine glands

30

Receptor in PANS?

Nicotine

31

Receptors in SANS?

Veins a1
Heart b1
Lungs b2

32

T/F Cholinergic Agents: indirect-acting, are cholinesterase inhibitors. They inactivate the enzyme thus permitting AcH to react to the receptor

True

33

What are the primary postsynaptic neurotransmitters for the sympathetic nervous system?

Norepinephrine/epinephrine

34

Which naturally occurring cholinergic agents is given to stimulate saliva flow?

Pilocarpine

35

Which adrenergic drug is used to treat asthma?

Albuterol

36

Which terms refer to the same groups of medications?

Sympathomimetic, adrenergic

37

All are adverse reactions of cholinergic agents except which of the following?

Neuromuscular paralysis in large doses Incorrect
Lacrimation
Xerostomia (Correct)
Salivation
Defecation

38

The term catecholamine refers to which agents?

Epinephrine

39

In the autonomic nervous system, the preganglionic neuron originates in the __________ and passes out to form the ganglia at the __________ with the postganglionic neuron. The postganglionic neuron originates in the __________ and innervates the __________.

central nervous system, ganglia, synapse, effector organ

40

The sensory components of ANS are the __________ fibers, and the motor component of the ANS are the __________ fibers.

afferent, efferent

41

A drug that acts at the location where norepinephrine is the neurotransmitter released would be termed

Adrenergic

42

A drug that has the suffix __________ has the same action as an agonist.

-mimetic

43

A drug that acts at the location where a division of the ANS acts and blocks the action (acting as an antagonist) of the neurotransmitter has the suffix __________.

lytic
blocker

44

What is the principal neurotransmitter of the PANS?

Acetylcholine

45

The action of the released acetylcholine is terminated by hydrolysis by the enzyme

Acetylcholinesterase

46

The direct-acting cholinergic or parasympathomimetic (PANS) agents include which drugs?

Choline derivatives
Pilocarpine

47

Which conditions are contraindications for PANS agents?

Severe cardiac disease
Peptic ulcer
Hyperthyroidism
Gastrointestinal or urinary tract obstruction

48

The anticholinergic or parasympatholytic agents are often used therapeutically to treat which conditions?

Decrease salivation and secretions to produce a dry field in oral surgery
Bronchodilator for asthma
Dilation of the pupils for ophthalmologic examinations

49

The combination of anticholinergic agents and levodopa is sometimes used for the treatment of __________.

Parkinson's disease

50

Examples of sympathomimetic adrenergic agonists include which drugs?

Epinephrine
Phenylephrine
Norepinephrine

51

Produces dry field for oral surgery?

Atropine

52

Used in treatment of shock?

Dopamine

53

OTC cold and allergy medication?

Pseudoephedrine

54

Vasoconstrictor in local anesthetics?

Epinephrine

55

Blocks action of β receptors in SANS?

Propranolol

56

Treatment of motion sickness?

Scopolamine

57

Treatment of glaucoma?

Dipivefrin

58

Used to facilitate intubation for general anesthetic?

Succinylcholine

59

Treatment of ADD and ADHD?

Methamphetamine

60

The two components of the ANS, the sympathetic autonomic nervous system (SANS) and the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (PANS) together control regulation of which bodily functions?

Regulation of blood pressure and heart rate and smooth muscles of the gut and bronchi

61

When the sympathetic autonomic nervous system is stimulated, the __________ releases epinephrine and norepinephrine, acting as a large sympathetic ganglion.

Adrenal medulla

62

A reaction that is neither a side effect or allergic reaction

Idiosyncratic Response

63

Autonomic Nervous System Functions

Regulates BP, heart rate, GI mobility, salivary gland secretions, and bronchial smooth muscles

64

Preganglionic neurons originate in the

CNS

65

Postganglionic neurons originate in the

Ganglia

66

Neurotransmitter between the preganglionic and postganglionic nerves:
These nerves are:

Acetylcholine (Ach)
Cholinergic

67

Acetylcholine is released:

at the 1st and 2nd synapse in the PANS
1st synapse in the SANS
Neuromuscular junction

68

ANS drugs are divided into 4 groups:

P+ Cholinergic/Parasympathomimetic (Stimulates PANS)
P- Anticholinergic/Parasympatholytic (Blocks PANS)
S+ Adrenergic/Sympathomimetic (Stimulates SANS)
S- Adrenergic blockers/Sympatholytic (Blocks SANS)

69

agents attach to the nicotine receptor and result in depolarization?

Depolarizing Agents

70

Major Neurotransmitter in SANS

Norepinephrine
Epinephrine

71

PANS consists of:

Cholinergic agents (Parasympathomimetic)
Anticholinergic agents (Parasympatholytic)
Nicnotinic agonists and antagonists



72

Adverse Reactions of Anticholinergic Agents

xerostomia, blurred vision, photophobia, tachycardia, fever, urinary and GI stasis, hyperpyrexia, hot/dry flushed skin, CNS excitation

73

Acetylcholine is stimulated by _____, therefore it is _____ in response

nicotine
nicotinic

74

When a person is taking multiple drugs

Polypharmacy

75

2.2 pounds =

1 kilogram

76

Acetycholine is the principle mediator in the

PANS

77

Anti Cholinergic agents used to treat?

Parkinson's disease
Motion sickness (Scopilamine)
Ophthalmologic exams
Gi disorders
Preoperative meds

78

Contraindications of anti Cholinergic agents

Glaucoma
Constipation
Urinary
Cardiovascular disease

79

Anticholingeric inhaler used to treat asthma

Ipratropium

80

Completely blocks receptors (Cholinergic)
Prevents the action of ACh at postganglionic endings

Anticholingeric

81

Parasympathomimetic?

Cholinergic

82

Parasymatholytic?

Anticholingeric

83

Direct acting: acts like ACh at receptor sites
Indirect acting: causes increase in ACh amount indirectly (breaks down ACh)

Cholinergic agents

84

Cholinergic agents treat?

Glaucoma
Myasthenic gravis
Urinary retention
Xerostomia

85

Contraindications of Cholinergic agents?

Bronchial asthma
Hyperthyroidism
GI or Urinary tract obstruction
Severe cardiac disease
Peptic ulcer

86

Neurotransmitters between pre and postganglionic?

Acetylcholine
Cholinergic
Nicotinic

87

Neurotransmitter between postganglionic and effector tissues?

Pans: ACh , Cholinergic, muscarinic

Sans: ne, adrenegic