Ch 4 Subcellular Organization of the Nervous System Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience > Ch 4 Subcellular Organization of the Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 4 Subcellular Organization of the Nervous System Deck (27):
1

Why are transcription levels so high in neurons?

because protein synthesis needs to be high due to the extensive volume of axons/dendrites

2

Where is mRNA synthesized?

nucleus

3

Nissl Substance

stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum interposed with rosettes of free polysomes

4

axon length

from a few micrometers to a meter or more

5

Nodes of Ranvier

high density sodium channels in unmyelinated axonal gaps

6

axolemma

the cell membrane surrounding an axon

7

paranodal axoglial junctions

These flank the nodes of Ranvier. They help regulate the sodium channels.

8

DRG

Dorsal Root Ganglia

9

2 categories of membrane proteins

integral and peripheral

10

integral membrane proteins

neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels are embedded in the lipid bilayer or covalently bonded to molecules close to the layer

11

secretory pathway

1. integral membrane proteins and secretory proteins are synthesized in the RER. 2. Golgi apparatus packages into secretory granules. 3. released by exocytosis

12

N terminus

the start of a protein or polypeptide terminated by an amino acid with a free amine group

13

synthesis of integral proteins

like secretory pathway, but an SRP jacks the N terminus

14

SRP

Signal Recognition Particle

15

translocon

conceptualized aqueous pore on the RER

16

TRAM

translocating chain-associating membrane protein

17

TRAP

translocon-associated protein

18

ribonucleic protein

a signal recognition particle

19

lumen

inside space of a tubular structure

20

TGN

trans-Golgi network: proteins are targeted to plasma membrane or organelles

21

de Novo

from the beginning, afresh

22

Adaptins

Adaptor Proteins (AP) transport vesicles from golgi

23

AP1-4

AP 1 & 2 have clathrin coated vesicles. AP 1 & 4 move vesicles between TGN and endosomes. AP 2 is for endocytosis. AP 3 ferries cargoes to lysosomes.

24

endosomes

any compartment in a eukaryotic cell

25

2 types of cell membrane invagination

caveola and clathrin

26

caveola

threadlike protein caveolin on the surface of a cell for endocytosis.

27

oligodendrocytes

glial cells that help insulate or support axons