Flashcards in Ch 4 Subcellular Organization of the Nervous System Deck (27):
Why are transcription levels so high in neurons?
because protein synthesis needs to be high due to the extensive volume of axons/dendrites
Where is mRNA synthesized?
stacks of rough endoplasmic reticulum interposed with rosettes of free polysomes
from a few micrometers to a meter or more
Nodes of Ranvier
high density sodium channels in unmyelinated axonal gaps
the cell membrane surrounding an axon
paranodal axoglial junctions
These flank the nodes of Ranvier. They help regulate the sodium channels.
Dorsal Root Ganglia
2 categories of membrane proteins
integral and peripheral
integral membrane proteins
neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels are embedded in the lipid bilayer or covalently bonded to molecules close to the layer
1. integral membrane proteins and secretory proteins are synthesized in the RER. 2. Golgi apparatus packages into secretory granules. 3. released by exocytosis
the start of a protein or polypeptide terminated by an amino acid with a free amine group
synthesis of integral proteins
like secretory pathway, but an SRP jacks the N terminus
Signal Recognition Particle
conceptualized aqueous pore on the RER
translocating chain-associating membrane protein
a signal recognition particle
inside space of a tubular structure
trans-Golgi network: proteins are targeted to plasma membrane or organelles
from the beginning, afresh
Adaptor Proteins (AP) transport vesicles from golgi
AP 1 & 2 have clathrin coated vesicles. AP 1 & 4 move vesicles between TGN and endosomes. AP 2 is for endocytosis. AP 3 ferries cargoes to lysosomes.
any compartment in a eukaryotic cell
2 types of cell membrane invagination
caveola and clathrin
threadlike protein caveolin on the surface of a cell for endocytosis.