Ch. 40 Disorders of Acid-Base Balance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 40 Disorders of Acid-Base Balance Deck (30):
1

Respiratory = __ =__

CO2 ; acid

2

Metabolic = ___ = ___

HCO3; base

3

Acids are molecules that __ __ ions
Examples (3)

release H ions

1. SO4
2. Nitric acid
3. Carbonic acid

4

Bases are ions that can __ or __ with __ and __ it and get rid of that acidity

accept; combine; H+; neutralize

5

pH =

% of H in our body

6

Our blood is slightly __

basic

7

Acid-Base balance equation:

CO2 + H2O --> H2CO3 -> H+ + HCO3-

8

What is the normal ratio of bicarb to carbonic acid and H ions ? (this determines pH)

20:1

9

What are the 3 main buffer systems?

1. Plasma buffer system
2. Respiratory buffer system
3. Renal buffer system

10

Plasma buffer system:
Responds __ to changes
What are the sub-buffer systems within the plasma buffer system? (3)

quickly

1. Bicarbonate buffer system
2. Phosphate buffer system
3. Protein buffer system

11

In bicarb buffer system:
bicarb ions __ with __ ions and help to get rid of __ or release _- if too alkaline

combine; H; acid; H

12

Phosphate buffer system: P ions in the blood can __ to the __ ions or release those __ __ if needed

attach ; H ; H ions

13

Proteins buffer: Proteins have an end group like __ and __ groups that can help them act as buffers; They can attract an __ ion or others to help adjust the pH of the plasma QUICKLY

carbonyl; amide

H

14

Respiratory buffer system: can adjust within ___ if we need to retain or blow off more __

minutes; CO2

15

Renal buffer system: takes __ to __ (little __)

hours; days; LONGER

16

normal pH is 7.35-7.45 __ ___ (___)

arterial blood (oxygenated)

17

We can use an __ __ to look at what kind of __ is going on in the body. This is not good for __.

anion gap; alkalosis; acidosis

18

examples of anions:

chloride, bicarb, lactate

19

examples of cations:

sodium; calcium; magnesium

20

anion gap =

cations - anions

21

Respiratory acidosis: what causes this?

1. from neuromuscular problems we are not able to properly work the diaphragm and breath well to move the CO2 out of the lung
2. drug or head injury which effects the breath control center (hypothalamus) can cause poor breathing slow and shallow
3. airway obstruction from choking
4. lung diseases affect how person is breathing

22

Manifestations of respiratory acidosis:

In CNS:
dizziness
lethargy
headache
convulsions
coma

23

Causes of respiratory alkalosis:

1. from an anxiety/panic attack
2. people in pain taking shallow breaths
3. some head injuries/brain tumors can cause hyperventilation
4. pts on mechanical ventilation may be over ventilated so too much CO2 pulled out of the boyd

24

Manifestations of respiratory alkalosis:

1. NEURO
2. tingling sensation
3. confusion
4. tachypnea

25

Metabolic acidosis: causes :

1. from lactic acidosis - too much anaerobic metabolism
2. diabetic ketoacidosis type 1 (can't get enough sugar into cells b/c can't produce insulin, breakdown amino acids and produce ketones instead)
3. Excessive diarrhea - loss of bicarb
4. renal failure - kidney cannot reabsorb bicarb so its lost in urine

26

Manifestations of metabolic acidosis :

RELATED TO NERVOUS SYSTEM
1. headache
2. lethargy
3. confusion
4. hyperpnea

27

Compensations of metabolic acidosis:

hyperpnea by the respiratory system to blow off more CO2

28

Causes of metabolic alkalosis:

1. vomiting/prolonged gastric suctioning (pulls acid out of go tract)
2. taking over the counter antacids (these meds have a lot of bicarb in them)
3

29

Manifestations of metabolic alkalosis:

1. numbness and tingling of fingers
2. toes muscle cramps
3. tetany (muscle contracting and getting stuck in that position)

30

Compensation of metabolic alkalosis:

1.hypoventilate
2. if no renal disease, decrease H excretion and decrease hock reabsorption