Ch. 47, 23, 24 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 47, 23, 24 Deck (38):
0

viruses that infect humans

flu, cold, chicken pox/ shingles, AIDS, rabies, hepatitis, etc.

1

Ex. bacterial disease

anthrax,botulism, cholera, tooth decay, gonorrhea, salmonella, strep throat, T.B., tetanus, staph infection

2

antibiotics

interfere with cellular functions ex. ability to build new cell walls

3

antibiotic resistance

few mutant bacteria may not be affected (or not at first) by the antibiotic and survive and reproduce

4

structure of viruses+ 3 types

no cytoplasm or organelles, surrounded by protein coat (capsid), protein and RNA or DNA
3 types: tobacco mosaic (helical), adenovirus (polyhedral), influenza (enveloped)

5

how viruses reproduce

must enter specific host cell and use host's ribosomes, ATP, enzymes and other molecules to reproduce

6

lytic cycle

virus invades a host cell, produces new viruses and ruptures the host cell

7

retroviruses

contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase in addition to RNA

8

lysogenic cycle

virus invades host cell, viral DNA becomes part of the host cell's DNA, when divides, viral DNA is passed to on

9

vaccines

stimulate the body's immune system to provide protection against a pathogen, may use inactivated or genetically altered viruses

10

how smallpox was eradicated

edward jenner used cowpox to develop vaccine for smallpox- eradicated by 1980

11

Koch's postulates

1. suspected pathogens must occur in only diseased animals
2. must be isolated and grown in a lab culture
3. if healthy animal inoculated, it should develop disease
4. pathogen from second animal should be the same as the original pathogen

13

nonspecific defenses

skin and mucous membranes

14

structures of immune system

adenoid, tonsil, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, lymph vessels, bone marrow

15

Ex. specific defenses

cell-mediated and humoral immune response, primary and secondary immune response

16

fever: general or specific response

general

17

cell-mediated response

interleukin-2 stimulates helper T cells, Cytotoxic T cells, and suppressor T cells

18

cytotoxic T cells

destroy body cells infected with this specific pathogen

19

suppressor T cells

help shut down the response after the pathogens have been destroyed

20

humoral immune response

interleukin-2 stimulates B cells to divide, form plasma cells, plasma produce specific antibodies which slows down pathogens

21

primary immune response

first time the body encounters an antigen
takes loger to build up antibodies and destroy pathogen

22

antibodies produced by _____

plasma cells

23

secondary immune response

uses memory cells
much faster and stronger response

24

immunity

resistance to a specific pathogen by vaccination or surviving disease

25

memory cells

some B and T cells remain in the body, in the specific pathogen enters again it is quickly eliminated, B cells stimulated ny interleukin-2

26

vaccines

introduces antigen to body to cause immunity

27

autoimmune diseases

immune system attacks own body cells

28

transmission of HIV

sexual contact
contaminated diseases
mother to fetus

29

allergies

inappropriate response to harmless substances

30

medical treatment for HIV

antiviral drugs prevent HIV from producing, strengthen immune system, emotional support

31

HIV phases

phase 1: virus replicates in body, B cells make antibodies
phase 2: B cells continue making antibodies, T cell level drops, immune system begins failing
phase 3: helper T cell level so low can't stimulate B cells
(AIDS diagnosed when T cells under 22/mL)

32

antibodies: general or specific response

specific

33

natural killer cells attack____ cells

infected

34

all pathogens have ___ on its surface allowing immune system to recognize as invaders

antigens

35

asthma

disorder when bronchioles narrow

36

adult immune system cells are produced here:

bone marrow

37

when B cells encounter an antigen, they divide and produce:

antibodies

38

inflammatory response

damaged cells release chemicals (histamine), histamines increase blood flow and permeability of capillaries, plasma an wbc's enter injured area