Ch 5, 6, &7 Flashcards Preview

Neuro Dx > Ch 5, 6, &7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 5, 6, &7 Deck (195):
1

Broca's area is found

only on the left side of the brain

2

motor for language
writing
speech
sign language

broca's area

3

frontal lobe controls

motor

4

precentral gyrus=

primary motor strip
voluntary

5

secondary motor strip=

planning

6

post central gyrus =

sensory

7

primary sensory

where am i being touched

8

secondary sensory

what is touching me

9

tertiary sensory

so what

10

occipital lobe most posterior region=

primary vision

11

secondary region in occipital

recognition

12

tertiary region in occipital

recall visual picture

13

left side only
sensory language

Wernickies area

14

hearing and memory

temporal lobe

15

most inferior part of temporal lobe

short term memory

16

primary and secondary hearing

Heschl's gyrus

17

decide to wait to pee if in the car

medial frontal micturition center

18

dimmer switch

basal ganglia

19

if motor is in the sensory 1/2 decussates

in the brain

20

if the sensory is in the motor 1/2 decussates

in the spinal cord

21

conscious proprioception
vibration
light touch
discriminatory touch
decussates in the brain

dorsal column

22

what makes up the dorsal column

gracilis and cuneate fasiculi

23

gracilis fascicle is for

lower body

24

cuneate is for

upper

25

dorsal 1/2 or spinal cord
voluntary movement
decussate in brain

lateral cortico spinal

26

dorsal 1/2 spinal cord
voluntary movement
shoulder/limb stabilizer

rubrospinal

27

unconscious postural correction
ventral

vestibulospinal

28

head/neck movement tied to eye movement

tectospinal

29

ventral
autonomic
postural stabilizer = pontine

recticulospinal

30

axial control

vermis of cerebellum

31

cranial nerve 3 and 4
arousal
pain modulation

midbrain reticular formation

32

Cranial nerves 5, 6, 7
postural stabilization
posterior

pontine reticular formation

33

autonomic control CN 8-12

meduallary reticular formation

34

inhibatory control

upper motor neuron

35

if a lesion is in the upper motor neuron

muscle weakness
spastic
increased muscle tone
inhib of LMN stops
increased deep tendon reflex
pathological reflex apears

36

lesion in lower motor neuron

decreased tendon reflex
decrease muscle tone
muscle weakness
muscle atrophy

37

three fossa

anterior
posterior
middle

38

3 spaces

epidural
subdural
subarachnoid

39

how many cc of CSF flitered how fast per hour

150, 200

40

common neurological symptom

Head ache

41

vascular headaches

migraine
cluster
dissection

42

types of migranes

classic
complicated
atypical

43

unilateral
throbbing/vascular
bright light loud sound = worse
sleep helps

classic migrane

44

adolescent girls below the age of 30 typically get what kind of ha

classic migrane

45

no head ache vascular problem neurologically deficient

atypical migrane

46

atypical + classic

complicated

47

typically found in middle aged men

cluster HA

48

stress and alcohol makes worse
measured in minutes
sharp stabbing pain behind the eyes
happen for a while then gone then comes back

cluster

49

damage to the tunica intima leads to blood into the false lumen
thrombus or embolism
tear in the artery blood flows in causing tear to get bigger

dissection

50

aka for tension HA

suboccipital
myogenic
hat band
cervicogenic

51

tension HA caused by

stress
psychological
can last days to weeks

52

significant trait of tension HA

bilateral squeezing

53

sleep depravation and eye strain

fatigue HA

54

chemical exposure
dehydration

toxic/metabolic HA

55

referred HA goes where

teeth
eyes
sinus
neckpain

56

common HA in elderly

inflammatory HA- temporal

57

aka for temporal HA

giant cell arteritis

58

opthalmic changes could be associated with what HA

temporal

59

inflammatory cells of temporal HA invade the

tunica media in the lumen

60

fibrotic changes results in

change of temporal artery

61

sign/symptoms of temporal HA

temporal arteritis
scalp pain
temporal A hard palpation

62

signs/ symptoms of increased intracranial pressure

cushing triad
global symptoms= HA shift level of conciousness
focal symptoms= dep on area of brain affected

63

cushing triad

inc BP, inc HR, dec respiration

64

what is the setting sun sign

eyes turn down due to hydrocephalus

65

other standard signs of hydrocephalus in infant

high pitched scream
transillumination
setting sun sign

66

intracranial tumors are distinct by

increased ICP and focal deficit

67

zone of transition in a benign tumor

short
sclerotic ring

68

encapsulation in benign tumor?

yes

69

growth rate of benign tumor

slow

70

recurrence of benign

no

71

zone of transition of malignant

long

72

encapsulation of malignant

no

73

malignant tumor growth rate

fast

74

recurrence of malignant tumors

yes

75

what percent occurance are glioma

40%

76

metastatic tumors occur

23%

77

meningioma occurance and malignancy

17%, benign

78

schwannoma

5%

79

pituitary tumor

5%

80

contracoup injury

bang right side but damage L

81

ImPACT(immediate post concussion assessment and cognitive testing) measurements

attention span
working memory
sustained/selective attention time
nonverbal problem solving
reaction time

82

concussion management

rest/ no activity until return to asymptomatic
light aerobic exercise
sport specific training
non-contact drills
full contact drills
game play

83

epidural hemorrhage

gets worse over course of a few hours
drill a hole to release pressure

84

intracranial hemorrhage

timing is key

85

subdural hemorrhage

oozes
days-> weeks
veinous bleed
not likely found until years later

86

subarachnoid hemorrhage

arterial bleed
worst HA ever
minutes
15-20 minuets to live

87

intracerebral hemorrhage

bleed in the terminal branch of arterioles
inc BP
diabetic
microaneurysm

88

infection that is possibly fatal within hours of onset

bacterial meningitis

89

CSF low in glucose
puss int CSF

Bacterial meningitis

90

signs or bacterial meningitis

HA
fever
neck stiffness

91

fatal brain infection with left untreated

brain abcess

92

bacterial tumor
puss filled pocket
HA
fever
stiff neck

brain abcess

93

Borelia Burdoferi comes from what

deer tick causing Lime disease

94

clear CSF
no puss
encephalitis

viral meningitis

95

primary example of encephalitis

west nile

96

secondary example of encephalitis

herpetic rash

97

encephalitis causes what

excess sleep patterns
aka meningeal encephalitis

98

CNS infection

bacterial
viral
parasitic
prion

99

another viral CNS infection not meningitis

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

100

what causes subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

dormant measles ( form the vaccine goes deep resurfaces later in the brain)

101

symptoms and prognosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

intellectual deterioration
forgetful
hallucination
siezure
neuro signs in CNS
variable prognosis

102

sleeping sickness aka

african trypanosomiasis

103

stage 1 of african trypanosomiasis

fever
joint pain
HA

104

stage 2 of african trypanosomiasis

sleep wake cycle disrupted
confusion
ataxia
tremor

105

Taenia Solium causes

Cysticercosis

106

Cysticercosis caused by

raw/undercooked pork

107

prions are

protein fragments

108

what are some common prion disesases

mad cow
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (Curu- cannibalism)

109

what causes transmisssion of these prions?

organ transplant or cannibalism

110

what is the prion called that causes mad cow

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

111

upper motor neuron pathway

cerebral cortex
mid brain
pons
medulla
spinal cord

112

where does the UMNP decussate?

pyramidal system

113

what influences the UMNP

basal ganglia and cerebellum

114

corticobulbar tract

motor cortex to brain stem

115

corticobulbar tract begins and projects to

primary motor cortex to brain stem

116

corticobulbar tract is in charge of

vol muscle control
travels with the descending tract

117

autonomic system has how many lower motor neuron pathways

2

118

autonomic system is influenced by what parts of the brain

hypothalamus
amygdala
solitary tract

119

location of the 1st neuron of the autonomic system

brainstem and cord (lateral horn)

120

location of the 2nd neuron of the autonomic system

peripheral

121

Goal of the parasympathetic division

Energy storage
Secretion
Direct blood flow
Sexual arousal

122

Origin of parasympatheitcs

CN 3 7 9 10 sacral

123

Parasympathetic division has _______ preganglionic and _______ post ganglionic

Long
Short

124

Where does the sympathetic signal originate

Thoracic levels they travel up
Intermediolateral

125

Effects of the sympathetic division

Eyes- dilate
Digestion- shutdown
Heart- inc rate
Lungs- inc respiration
Peripheral capillaries- decrease constric
Skeletal muscle- inc blood supply

126

Myenteric plexus is also called

Auerbach

127

Myenteric plexus controls

Muscle control
Peristalsis

128

Submucosal plexus aka

Meisner

129

Submucosal plexus controls

Blood vessel size for absorption/ secretion

130

Sympathetic control of the enteric division

Splanchnics

131

Enteric division regulated by parasympathetic division via

CN x and sacral

132

Hirschprung disease aka

Congenital aganglionic megacolon

133

What happen with hirschprung disease

During development migrating cells of Myenteric and sub mucosal plexus do not continue to the distal colon
No innervation
Results in constipation and huge distention

134

Paresis

Partial weakness

135

Plegia

Total weakness

136

Paralysis

Complete weakness
No movement

137

Palsy

Partial weakness

138

proximal weakness

muscular distrophy
muscle degeneration (pelvis and shoulders)
gomer sign (weak glutes)
genetic x linked (more common male children)

139

what is the worst form of proximal weakness

Duchene
starts proximal then moves distally

140

distal weakness

neurological

141

lesion of upper motor neuron

weakness- yes
atrophy- no
fasciculations- no
tendon reflexes- increase
tone- increases
pathological reflexes- yes

142

lesion of lower motor neuron

weakness- yes
atrophy- yes
fasciculations- yes
tendon reflexes- decrease
tone- decrease
pathological reflex- no

143

what is a fasiculation

receptors put all over the outside of the muscle looking to reinnervate

144

gait disorder lesion location

anywhere in NS

145

spastic gait aka

stroke posture
triple flexion

146

spastic gait is caused by

UMNL
stroke
MS
cerebral palsy
fall toward spastic side

147

functional gait disorder cause

inorganic
malingerer
they do not fall
reel and stumble

148

MS pathology

autoimmune demyelination
exacerbation and remission (inflammatory attacks)

149

etiology of MS

idiopathic

150

classic first suspicion of MS

two or more deficits separated by anatomy and temporary usually completely unrelated

151

What temperature makes MS worse

high temps

152

ratio of male to female MS

2:1

153

age range MS

20-40

154

hallmark neuro symptom

optic neuritis

155

motor symptoms of MS

weakness
spasticity
UMNL

156

spinal cord degeneration is known as

L'hermitte sign
flex head= shooting pain in neck, extend pain stops

157

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALS
Lou Gehrig disease

158

lou Gehrig disease degeneration of

upper and lower motor neurons

159

ALS prognosis

death respiratory failure of phrenic N

160

UMNL signs in

lower extremity

161

LMNL signs in

upper extremity

162

first symptom of ALS

focal weakness in small muscles spreads from there

163

spinothalamic pathways

crude touch
pain
temp
conscious sensory

164

dorsal columns

light touch
discriminating touch
conscious proprioception
vibration
conscious sensory

165

what do dorsal column mimic

peripheral neuropathies becuase the decussate in brain stem

166

fiber size of dorsal column

large
control is ipsilateral

167

where does the dorsal column travel

cuneate and gracile nuclei

168

where does the dorsal column project

thalamus
post internal capsule
somatosensory cortex

169

dorsal column is joined by

trigeminal laminiscus

170

anterolater pathway has two parts

spinothalamic
spinoreticular

171

fiber size of anterolateral pathway

small

172

synapse and decussation of anterolateral pathway

immediate in sc at an angle

173

lateral spinal cord lesion effects

contralateral pain and temp sensation few levels below lesion

174

aka for spinoreticular

paleospinothalamic
anterior spinothalamic

175

aka for spinothalamic

neo spinothalamic
lateral spinothalamic

176

all thalamic tracts ascend to where

parietal lobe

177

bar

pressure

178

graph

writing

179

top/topo

mapping

180

stereo

3D

181

dys

something aint right

182

allo

everywhere

183

pall

vibration

184

par

abnormal

185

algia
dynia
algesia

pain

186

esthesia

feeling

187

gnosis

knowledge

188

pathia

something aint right

189

what is more damaging than the actual injury

inflammation

190

spinal cord shock

spinal cord concussion
24-48 hrs
temporary

191

inflammation

myelitis

192

MRI finding of spinal shock

usually MRI appears grey
will appear white from increased water

193

myelomalacia

spinal softening

194

what does myelomalacia occur

hemorrhage into cord

195

central cord syndrome

lesion at central commissure
distribution is shawl like
suspended sensory loss