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Flashcards in Ch 5 Deck (50):
1

Process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

Sensation

2

Process by which our brain organizes and interprets sensory information, transforming it into meaningful objects and events

Perception

3

Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information

Bottom up processing

4

Information processing guided by higher level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations

Top down processing

5

Changing one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret

Transduction

6

The minimum stimulus energy needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 % of the time

Absolute threshold

7

Below a person's absolute threshold for conscious awareness

Subliminal

8

Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience the different threshold as a just noticeable difference

Difference threshold

9

Activating, often unconsciously, associations in our mind, thus setting us up to perceive, remember, or respond to objects or events in certain ways

Priming

10

The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than constant amount)

Weber's law

11

Reduced sensitivity in response to constant stimulation

Sensory adaptation

12

Mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

Perceptual set

13

Distance from peak of one light wave or sound wave to the peak of the next

Wavelength

14

Dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names (blue, green, etc)

Hue

15

Amount of energy in a light or sound influences what we perceive as brightness or loudness. Intensity is determined by the waves amplitude (height)

Intensity

16

Light sensitive inner surface of the eye; contains the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

Retina

17

Retinal receptors that detect black, white, or gray, and are sensitive to movement; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond

Cones

18

Nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

Optic nerve

19

Point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye; this part of the retina is "blind" because it has no receptor cells

Blind cells

20

The theory that the retina contains three different types of color receptors- one most sensitive to red, one to blue, one to green. When stimulated in combination, these receptors can producer the perception of any color

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three color) theory

21

Theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow -blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are turned on by green and off by red; others are turned on by red and off by green

Opponent-process theory

22

Nerve cells in brain that respond to specific features of a stimulus, such as shape, angles, or movement

Feature detectors

23

Processing many aspects of a problem or scene at the same time; the brains natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision

Parallel processing

24

An organized whole. ______ psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes

Gestalt

25

Organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings

Figure-ground

26

Perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into meaningful groups

Grouping

27

Ability to see objects in three dimensions, although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional; allows us to judge distance

Depth perception

28

Laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

Visual cliff

29

A depth cue, such as retinal disparity, that depends on the use of two eyes

Binocular cue

30

A binocular cue for perceiving depth. By comparing images from the two eyes, the brain computes distance- the greater the disparity(difference) between the two objects, the closer the object

Retinal disparity

31

A depth cue, such as interposition or linear perspective, available to either eye alone

Monocular cue

32

Perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent color, brightness, shape, and size) Evan as illumination and retinal images change

Perceptual constancy

33

Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object

Color constancy

34

Ability to adjust to changed sensory input, including an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

Perceptual adaptation

35

Sense or act of hearing

Audition

36

Number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time (for example, per second)

Frequency

37

Tones experienced highness or lowness, depends on frequency

Pitch

38

Chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlear's oval window

Middle ear

39

Coiled, bony, fluid filled tube in the inner ear; sound waves traveling through its fluid trigger nerve impulses

Cochlea

40

Innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircle canals, and vestibular sacs

Inner ear

41

Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; the most common form of hearing loss, also called nerve deafness

Sensorineural hearing loss

42

Less common form of hearing loss, caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea

Conduction hearing loss

43

Device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea

Cochlear implant

44

Social interaction in which one person suggests to another person that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

Hypnosis

45

A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors

Posthypnotic suggestion

46

System for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

Kinesthesia

47

Sense of body movement and position, including sense of balance

Vestibular sense

48

Principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste

Sensory interaction

49

Influencers bodily sensations, gestures, and other states on cognitive preferences and judgments

Embodied cognition

50

The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition

Extrasensory perception