Ch 5-8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 5-8 Deck (117):
1

plasma membrane

fluid mosaic

2

membrane proteins

channel
carrier
recognition
receptor
enzymatic
junction

3

channel protein

always open
move things in and out of cell

4

carrier protein

sodium-potassium pump
highly specific

5

recognition protein

holds glycoproteins

6

receptor proteins

binds neurotransmitter and hormones

7

enzymatic protein

speeds up reaction

8

junction protein

holds cells together

9

types of transport

passive
active
bulk

10

passive transport

no energy

high to low concentration

with gradient

equillibrium

11

active transport

energy needed

low to high concentration

against gradient

no equillibrium

12

bulk transport

energy needed

concentration independent

no gradient

no equillibrium

13

types of passive transport

simple diffusion
facilitated diffusion
osmosis

14

simple diffusion

brownian motion
tiny particles flow constantly

15

facilitated diffusion

reach equillibrium
uses facilities to move
carrier protein used

16

osmosis

move water only
passive facilitated diffusion of water across membrane

17

tonicity comparison

compare two solutions

18

isotonic

equal solutes
no gradient

19

hypotonic

low solute

20

hypertonic

high solute

21

types of bulk transport

exocytosis
endocytosis

22

exocytosis

moving out

23

endocytosis

moving in

24

phagocytosis

eat

25

pinocytosis

drink

26

receptor mediated endocytosis

cell gets a signal

27

chemiosmosis

build high concentration of H+ ions on one side of membrane

high conct=potential energy

28

cell to cell attachments

extracellular matrix
junctions
plasmodesmata

29

extracellular matrix

animals only

30

intergrin

membrane protein attaches to cytoskeleton and ECM

31

proteoglycan

regulating movement around cell

directs things where to go

32

junction attachment

only animals

33

tight junction

forms impermeable barrier

34

desmosome junction

connect cytoskeleton of one cell to cytoskeleton of another cells

allows movement

35

gap junction

channels between cells allows passage from one cell to another

36

plasodesmata

similar to gap junctions

connect cytosols of two cells

37

how cells talk

signal cells sends signal
target cell recieves signal

38

process of cell talking

synthesis of signal by signal cell

release signal

transport of signal to target cell

specific receptor on target cell binds to signal

target cell undergoes metabolic change

removal of signal

39

g protein receptors

cyclic amp

40

know g protein process

in notes

41

energy

ability to do work

42

potential energy

stored energy

43

kinetic energy

energy of motion

44

every time energy is transferred they only get what %

10%

45

laws of energy/thermodynamics

conservation of energy
entropy

46

conservation of energy

energy is neither created nor destroyed only changed in form

47

entropy

at every form change usable energy is lost as heat

48

ato

usable energy for cells
cellular currency
adenosine triphosphate

49

know atp cycle

see notes

50

coupled reactions

reactions where product of first reaction become the reactants

51

anabolic

small molecules to make large molecules

endergonic

52

catabolic

large molecules broken into small molecules

exergonic

53

endergonic

input of energy

54

exergonic

releases energy

55

oxidation reduction reaction

reaction where reactants exchange electrons via H+

56

metabolic pathways

all reactions occurs in a cell

57

macronutrient pathway

lipids, carbs, protein have same product of co2 and atp

58

activation energy

input energy needed to turn reactants into products

biological catalysts- enzymes

59

cofactor

metallic minerals

60

cofactor

organic vitamens

61

substrate

specific reactant that binds enzyme

62

holenzyme

whole enzyme with substrate

63

apoenzyme

enzyme without substrate

64

regulatory site known as

allosteric

65

induced fit

enzyme binds its specific substrate undergoes a conformational change to break bonds and form new ones

66

denaturation

cause protein folding of active site to change shape

reaction will happen but slowly

ph and temp change

67

competitive inhibitor

molecule similar to substrate that competes for active site

lowers the products

68

noncompetitive inhibition

binds to allosteric site then active site closes and change shape of active site

69

feedback inhibition

final product becomes the inhibitor

stops pathways until its all used then it restarts

70

purpose of photosynthesis

allow organisms to absorb solar energy in form of photons

convert energy

store it in bonds of organics

71

photoautotrophs

green plants
algae
phytoplankton

need light

72

chemoautotrophs

chemicals used as energy

73

where does photosynthesis occur

leaves

74

know diagram of a leaf

in notes

75

chloroplasts

pigment complexes
absorb solar energy and convert it

76

short wavelength

more energy
x ray
gamma ray
uv

77

long wavelength

less energy
infared
microwaves
radio waves

78

chlorophyll a

absorbs- I V R
reflects- G

79

chlorophyll b

absorb- O R B I V
reflect- G

80

lutin

absorb- G B I V
reflect- Y

81

betacarotene

absorb- G B I V
reflect- O

82

zeaxanthin

absorb- G B I V
reflect- Y

83

lycopene

absorb- G B I V
reflect- R

84

spectral output

most productive lights are red, indigo, and violet

85

redox chemical reaction

H2O + CO2 = CH2O + O2

oxidation- h2o and o2
reduction- co2 and ch2o

86

coenzyme

electron carrier

bonds H+ electron from oxidized reaction and deliever it to reduced reaction

87

light reaction

thylakoid membrane
require sunlight
H2O oxidized
products- oxygen, atp, nadph

88

calvin cycle

strom
light independent
co2 reduced
products- glucose, adp + pi, nadp+

89

ground state

innermost electron shell

90

excited state

outermost electron
excited by sunlight

91

know process of light reaction & calvin cycle

see notes

92

light reaction pathways

cyclic- produces atp
non cyclic- produces atp and nadph

93

pigment complex structures

antenna pigments
reaction center

94

antenna pigments

absorb and hold solar energy

95

reaction center

reaction center chlorophyll
primary electron acceptir

96

atp pump

pumps H+ through rod then turn to create atp energy

97

calvin cycle stages

co2 fixation
co2 reduction
regeneration of RuBP

98

co2 fixation

co2 bonded to c5 molecule

99

co2 reduction

atp and nadph from light reaction are used to make g3p

100

regeneration of RuBP

atp used to regenerate 5g3p into orginal substrate

101

fate of g3p

glucose
fatty acids
amino acids

102

C3 cycle

soybeans
stomata closed at nights
regular cycle

103

C4 cycle

maize
dry no rain
stomata closed at night

104

CAM cycle

stomata closed at day
tropical
pineapple

105

cellular respiration

extract energy stored in bonds of organics and convert to usable energy as atp

all organisms

106

oxidative phosphorylation

chemiosmosis concentration to power the atp pump

107

substrate level phosphorylation

molecule gives up its phosphats group for atp production

108

glycolysis

split glucose

109

prep reaction

transport pyruvate from cytoplasm to matrix of mitochondria

must have mitochondria
must have oxygen inside cell

110

citric acid cycle
krebs

in matrix
oxidation

111

electron transport chain

make atp

112

net gain of glycolysis

2 atp

113

total atp for 1 glucose

36-38

114

know glycolysis process

see notes

115

fermentation

mammal
yeast

116

mammal fermentation

pyruvate created lactic acid

117

yeast fermentation

pyruvate into ethanol
emits co2