Flashcards in Ch. 5: Anxiety, Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders Deck (41):
Excessive or ongoing anxiety and worry for at least 6 months about a number of activities.
What are some symptoms of GAD?
Restlessness, fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, sleep problems.
Describe the sociocultural perspective of GAD?
Develops in people who are faced with ongoing dangerous societal conditions, but this doesn't explain how most people in these situations develop GAD
What perspective touches on the idea that children experience realistic, neurotic (prevented from expressing id desires) and moral (punished for id desires) and defense mechanism are inadequate?
What are some types of psychodynamic therapies and what are some benefits?
Some types are free association, transference, resistance and dreams. Can help in the short term
Describe the humanistic perspective on GAD?
Occurs when people stop looking at themselves honestly
What are some strategies related to humanistic perspective?
Roger's client centered therapy including positive regard and empathy
Describe Ellis' rational emotive therapy (used in cognitive therapy)?
Identify irrational assumptions, develop alternative appropriate assumptions
Educating patients about worrying, observation of bodily arousal and gaining insight is what kind of cognitive therapy?
New wave cognitive therapy
Awareness and acceptance of thought is known as what kind of cognitive therapy
Mindfulness based cognitive therapy
What does the biological perspective say about GAD and name some treatments?
Based in genetics and GABA has a role. Drug therapy, relaxation training and biofeedback are all forms of treatment
What is a phobia?
A persistent, unreasonable fear of an object or activity.
Which gender is more likely to have phobias?
What does the behavioral perspective say about phobias?
Classical conditioning (little Albert), modeling and stimulus generalization are all factors
What are some behavioral strategies for treating phobias?
What is the behavioral explanation for agoraphobia and some treatments?
Classical conditioning, modeling and stimulus generalization. Treatments are exposure in support group or home based setting.
What is Social Anxiety Disorder?
Severe, persistent, irrational anxiety about social performance.
What does the cognitive perspective say about social anxiety disorder?
Develops when people hold unrealistic expectations that work against them. People perform avoidance and safety behaviors to prevent social disasters.
What are some treatments for social anxiety disorder in the biological, behavioral and cognitive setting?
Biological: Medications like antidepressants/anxiolytics
Behavioral: Exposure therapy, social training
Cognitive: Rational emotive therapy
Define panic disorder?
Recurrent unexpected panic attacks followed by persistent concern about attacks or significant change in behavior in regard to attacks.
Name 5 specifiers of panic attacks.
Palpitations, sweating, shaking, chest pain, nausea
Describe biological perspective on panic disorders?
Increase in norepinephrine in locus coeruleus. Malfunction in brain circuit containing amygdala, grey matter and VM nucleus of hypothalamus
Panic disorder develops in people who misinterpret physiological events that are occurring in their body. They may then hyperventilate. What perspective of panic disorder is this?
Those with panic disorder overreact when hyperventilation is produced. What is this known as?
Biological challenge test
The focus on bodily sensation, poor assessment and harmful interpretation is known as what?
What is the purpose of cognitive treatment?
Teach more accurate representation
Teach coping mechanisms
Describe obsessive compulsive disorder?
Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts or urges that are experienced in an unwanted manner that cause distress/anxiety
What is the main hallmark of OCD?
The person affected tries to ignore the obsessions with other thoughts or actions
Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to their rigid rules.
Obsessions and compulsions are _______ ____________ or cause significant distress.
With OCD, you need to specify if the sufferer has what?
Describe the psychodynamic perspective of OCD?
Battle between id and ego; defense mechanism buried in unconscious but here play out in overt thought
What are the 3 primary defense mechanisms of OCD?
Isolation: disown unwanted thoughts
Undoing: perform acts to cancel out unwanted impulses
Reaction formation: take on opposite lifestyle
Conflict between id and ego is traced to the _______ stage
The _____________ perspective of OCD believes that compulsions develop after repeated accidental associations between compulsion and consequence.
What are some behavioral treatments of OCD?
Exposure and response prevention
Describe the cognitive perspective of OCD?
Focus on obsessions
People try to neutralize unwanted thoughts
What are some cognitive treatments for OCD?
Point out misinterpretation of unwanted thoughts
Explore excessive sense of responsibility
Neutralize acts that produce symptoms
Describe the biological perspective of OCD?
Low activity of serotonin (may be a neuromodulator)
Damage to certain areas of the brain (orbitofrontal and cingulate cortex, thalamus, amygdala) may cause some symptoms
What are some biological treatments for OCD?
Antidepressants, which will help obsessions and compulsions disappear in 8 weeks.