Flashcards in Ch. 5: Articulatory – Phonological Development & Speech Sound Disorders Deck (107):
Refers to speech-motor-control problems.
Refers to the fact that phonology is part of the language system. Children with these disorders have problems that are specific to the knowledge of phonological rules and have faulty phonological representations.
Speech Sound Disorder (SSD)
The presentation of reduced intelligibility due to a combination of speech-motor and phonological factors.
An abstract system of symbols used to communicate meaning. It is larger than speech.
The actual motor production of oral language.
Looks at children’s acquisition of individual phonemes and emphasizes speech-motor control. Viewed as the surface representation or what we produce.
Studies children’s acquisition of individual phonemes and the processes underlying such patterns. Viewed as the underlying representation of what we produce.
Focuses on the underlying knowledge of the rules of the sound system of a language.
A natural class, process, property, or rule is one that is preferred or frequently used in phonologic systems. One phonological property is more natural than another if the first is used in a greater number of languages and if it develops before the other property.
Sounds that appear to be natural. They tend to be easier to acquire, and thus are acquired earlier than other sounds. E.g., /b/
Less natural sounds that tend to be acquired later. E.g., /th/
The smallest unit of sound that can affect meaning. A class of speech sounds. An abstract name given to variations of a speech sound.
Small variations in phoneme sounds. E.g., kitten, bucket, cook
Refers to the abstract system of sounds. E.g., /t/
Refers to concrete productions of specific sounds. E.g., [t]
Speech sounds that are always voiced and the mouth is most open. Classified according to the tongue positions needed to produce them (front, central, back, high, mid, low). Also classified according to lip position (rounding vs. retraction).
Number of speech sounds in the English language.
Occur when two vowels are combined. Produced by a continuous change in vocal tract shape.
Distinctive Features Paradigm
Paradigm used to describe vowels and consonants. Believes that the phoneme is not the basic unit of speech. Proposes that a phoneme is a collection of independent features. Uses a binary system. Features are either present or absent (+ or -).
A unique characteristic of a phoneme that distinguishes one phoneme from another.
Paradigm used to describe consonants.
Place of Articulation
Describes the location of the constriction. Includes: Bilabials, labiodentals, linguadentals, lingua-alveolars, linguapalatals, linguavelars, and glottals.
Describes the presence or absence of VF vibrations in the production of consonants.
Manner of Articulation
Describes the degree or type of constriction of the vocal tract. Includes: Stops, fricatives, affricates, glides, liquids, and nasals.
Produced by completely stopping the airflow. The air pressure is built up in the oral cavity and then released in a manner resembling a small explosion.
Produced by severely constricting the oral cavity and then forcing the air through it, creating a hissing or friction type of noise.
A combination of stops and fricatives. Only two English affricates: /ch/ & /dj/
Produced by gradually changing the shape of the articulators. Only two English glides: /w/ & /j/
Produced with the least restriction in the oral cavity. Also called semi-vowels. Only two English liquids: /r/ & /l/
In producing this sound, air escapes through the sides of the tongue. Only English lateral: /l/
Produced while keeping the VP port open so the sound produced by the larynx passes through the nose. Only three English nasals: /m/, /n/, /ng/
Behavioral Theory of Articulatory-Phonatory Development
Theory of articulatory-phonatory development based on conditioning and learning. Treats the acquisition of speech like the acquisition of any other skill. Thus, it is presumed that the acquisition of speech does not require such special phenomena as innate universals. Emphasizes that the child develops the adult-like speech of his or her community through interactions with the caregiver. The child’s babbling is gradually shaped into adult forms through principles of classical conditioning that occur primarily during caregiver-child interactions. Some experts argue that this theory does not account for an infant’s creativity or capacity to produce new patterns. Evidence is not compelling that caretakers selectively reinforce the child’s sounds in the prelinguistic period.
Structural Theory of Articulatory-Phonatory Development
Theory of articulatory-phonatory development which states that phonological development follows an innate, universal, and hierarchal order of acquisition of distinctive features. The child begins with the maximal contrasts of /p/ and /a/, and differentiates and fine tunes them into more subtle contrasts. Jakobson (1968) stated that babbling was not continuous with early speech, and thus proposed the hypothesis of discontinuity between early babbling and subsequent speech development. There appears to be little support for the idea of discontinuity or for the idea of development of feature contrasts. Because of the variability between individual children, the idea of invariable universals of development is not supported.
Natural Phonology Theory of Articulatory-Phonatory Development
Theory of articulatory-phonatory development which proposes that natural phonological processes are innate processes that simplify the adult target word. Some experts believe that natural phonological processes are innate or are acquired early in life and fairly easily by children. According to Stampe, children learn to suppress processes that do not occur in their languages. Stampe believed that children represent or store speech forms correctly. What leads to the use of phonological processes is output constraints. The concept of the universal or innate status of child phonological processes or rules is controversial. There is no empirical evidence that children have full and accurate perception from the earliest stages of speech production. Natural phonology does not account for “non-natural” simplifications in the speech of children. Many highly unintelligible children produce the sounds of speech in a way that cannot be classified using natural phonology.
Constraints on production that lead to simplification of the adult model.
Generative Phonology Theory
Theory of articulatory-phonatory development that attempts to explain the sound structure of human languages. Phonological descriptions are dependent on information from other linguistic levels. Phonological rules map underlying representations onto surface pronunciations. This theory has been applied to our understanding of children’s speech acquisition because is enables a description of the relationship of children’s productions to adult pronunciation in terms of phonological rules. Some underlying premises of this theory have been criticized and this theory is not broadly applied in the field of SLP.
Linear Phonology Theories
These theories are based on the premise that all speech segments are arranged in a sequential order that all sound segments have equal value, and that all distinctive features are equal. Thus, no one specific sound segment has control over other segments. Characterized by rules that operate in a domain of linear strings of segments. Assumes that phonological properties are linear strings of segments, and that sound segments are composed of a bundle of independent characteristics or features. Goals of these theories are:
- Describe phonological patterns that occur in natural languages
- Create rules that account for these systems
- Identify universal principles that apply to various phonological systems
Non-Linear Phonology Theories
Theories that explore the relationships among units of different sizes. Developed as an alternative to account for the influence of stress and tone features in levels of representation independent of segmental or linear representation. Deemphasize processes or rules and focus on prosodic phenomena. Assume that there is some sort of hierarchy that helps to organize both segmental and suprasegmental phonological units or properties.
Birth – 1 month. Speechlike sounds are rare, and most vocalizations are reflexing (e.g., burping, coughing, crying). Some nonreflexive vowels or syllabic consonants may occur.
2 – 4 months. Most of the infant’s productions are acoustically similar to /u/. Some velar consonantlike sounds may occur.
4 – 6 months. The infant is “playing” with the speech mechanism, exploring his or her capabilities through such productions as growls, squeals, yells, and raspberries (bilabial trills). Some CV-like combinations and vowellike sounds may be produced.
Canonical/Reduplicated Babbling Stage
6 – 8 months. The infant produces strings of CV syllables, such as [mamamama], [dadadada], or [dedededed]. Although the infant does not have sound-meaning correspondence, the timing of the CV syllables approximates that of adult speech. By about 8 months, children with hearing losses fall behind hearing peers in language development.
Nonreduplicated Babbling Stage
8 months – 1 year. The infant continues to use adult-like syllables in CV sequences, but a variety of consonants and vowels appear in single vocalization (e.g., [duwabe]).
Cross-Sectional Research Studies
Research studies that are used to establish norms of articulation development.
The typical behaviors of a representative group of children. Based on statistical averages that apply to large groups of students. Useful only as broad guidelines.
Longitudinal Research Studies
Research studies that observe the process of learning. One or more children are observed for an extended period of time. Do not yield norms.
Group of phonological processes including vocalization, gliding, velar fronting, stopping, depalatization, affrication, deaffrication, backing, and glottal replacement.
Group of phonological processes including reduplication, regressive assimilation, and voicing assimilation.
Syllable Structure Processes
Group of phonological processes including unstressed- or weak-syllable deletion, final consonant deletion, epenthesis, consonant-cluster simplification or reduction, diminutization, and metathesis.
In this process, a vowel (usually /o/ or /u/) is substituted for a syllabic consonant (usually a liquid). E.g., a child might say “bado” instead of “bottle” or “noodoo” instead of “noodle.”
In this process, a liquid consonant is produced as a glide. Can also occur in consonant clusters (“pretty” → “pwetty”). Children frequently make the following substitutions:
- l → w
- l → j
- r → w
In this process, an alveolar or a dental replaces a velar. This usually occurs in word-initial position (e.g., ti/ki).
In this process, a fricative or affricate is replaced by a stop. E.g., a child might make the following substitution: “tu” for “shoe.”
In this process, a child substitutes an alveolar affricate for a palatal affricate (e.g., “wats” for “watch”) or substitutes an alveolar fricative for a palatal fricative (e.g., “chun” for “sun”).
In this process, a fricative replaces an affricate (e.g., “sip” for “chip”).
In this process, a posteriorly placed consonant is produced instead of an anteriorly places consonants (velars are substituted for alveolars). E.g., “gan” for “dan.”
In this process, a glottal stop is produced in place of other consonants.
In this process, a child repeats a pattern. E.g., “babababa.”
In this process, a later sound is influenced by an earlier sound. E.g., “guck” for “duck.”
Progressive Assimilation/Consonant Harmony
In this process, an earlier sound influences a later sound. E.g., “kick” for “kiss.”
In this process, either devoicing (e.g., “pick” for “pig”) or voicing (e.g., “bad” for “pad”) occurs.
Unstressed- or Weak-Syllable Stress Deletion
In this process, an unstressed syllable is omitted. E.g., “mato” for “tomato.”
Final Consonant Deletion
In this process, the final consonant is deleted. E.g., “ca” for “cat”).
In this process, a schwa vowel in inserted between the consonants in an initial cluster (“taree” for “tree”) or after a final voiced stop (“stopa” for “stop”).
Consonant-Cluster Simplification or Reduction
In this process, a consonant or consonants in a cluster are deleted. E.g., “peed” for “speed.”
In this process, /i/ is added to the target form. E.g., “doggy” for “dog.”
In this process, the production of sounds in a word are in reduced order. Also known as a spoonerism. E.g., “peek” for “keep”).
Disorders that arise from various physical anomalies that affect the function or structure of the speech mechanism.
Disorder that cannot be explained on the basis of neurological damage, muscle weakness or paralysis, or structural problems, such as cleft palate.
An incorrect sound is produced in place of a correct sound.
Required sounds are omitted in words.
Sounds are produced with excessive lip rounding.
Oral sounds (especially oral stops like /g/) are produced with inappropriate, usually excessive, nasal resonance.
Fricatives such as /h/ are produced in the pharyngeal area.
Voiced sounds are produced with limited VF vibrations or without VF vibrations.
Sibilant consonants are produced with the tongue top placed too far forward (between or against the teeth). /s/ and /z/ are the sounds most commonly involved.
Sibilant sounds such as /s/ and /z/ are produced with air flowing inappropriately over the sides of the tongue.
Strident sounds are omitted (e.g., “ma” for “match”). Sometimes described as a phonological process.
Aspirated sounds (e.g., /k/ and /t/ are produced without aspiration.
Initial, Medial, & Final Deletion Errors
Errors in the production of a beginning, medial, or final sound in a word.
Prevocalic, Intervocalic, & Postvocalic Errors
Errors occur with reference to consonant position in syllables would involve a postvocalic error. The substitution of “gog” for “dog” would involve a prevocalic error.
Structural Abnormalities Associated with SSDs
Includes ankyloglossia, dental deviations, oral-motor coordination skills, orofacial myofunctional disorders (tongue thrust), hearing loss, and neuropathologies such as dysarthria and apraxia.
Occurs when the frenulum is attached too close to the top of the tongue. May be surgically clipped or cut. Not a frequent cause of misarticulaton.
Refers to deviations in the shape and dimensions of the mandible and maxilla and the positioning of the individual teeth.
Class I Malocclusion
In this malocclusion, the arches themselves are generally aligned properly, but some individual teeth are misaligned.
Class II Malocclusion
In this malocclusion, the upper jaw or maxilla is protruded and the lower jaw or mandible is receded. Also referred to as overbite.
Occurs when a child has a class II malocclusion and the upper teeth from the molars forward are positioned excessively anterior to the lower teeth.
Class III Malocclusion
In this malocclusion, the maxilla is receded and the mandible is protruded.
Maximum repetition rate of syllables in rapid succession.
Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders (OMD)
Term that encompasses any anatomical or physiological characteristic of the orofacial structures (palate, cheeks, tongue, lips, jaw, teeth) that interferes with normal speech, physical, dentofacial, or psychosocial development. This includes swallow, labial and lingual rest, and speech posture differences. Includes tongue thrust. Children typically exhibit deviant swallows. According to ASHA, “Myofunctional therapy is appropriate and within the purview of SLPs who assess and treat the effects of OMD on swallowing, rest postures, and speech.”
Presentation of dysarthria in childhood. Treatment is very repetitive and structured, involving increasing muscle tone and strength, increasing range and rate of motion, and treating other parameters (e.g., respiration) that affect intelligibility. Involves intensive and systematic drill, modeling, phonetic placement, and emphasis on accuracy of sound production. For children that cannot be 100% intelligible, compensatory strategies (e.g., prosthetic devices) are often used to assist in communication.
Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)
Presentation of AOS in childhood. Children demonstrate sensorimotor problems in positioning and sequentially moving muscles for the volitional production of speech. They frequently show groping behaviors and poor intelligibility due to inconsistent and multiple articulation errors. Inconsistent errors are a hallmark of this disorder. May have deficits in phonological representation. Treatment is multimodal, involving extensive drills stressing sequences of movement involved in speech production, imitation, decreased rate of speech, normal prosody, and increased accuracy in the production of individual consonants, vowels, and consonant clusters. Children may also need intervention for oral language, spelling, and reading deficits. Therapy often takes years and must be intensive. Home practice and self-monitoring are essential.
Refers to the child’s ability to imitate the clinician’s model. Clinicians should select the sounds the child misarticulates and assess the child’s Stimulability for those sounds.
A type of analysis in which a child’s speech patterns are described without reference to the adult model of language of the child’s community. E.g., might state that a child’s speech contains /f/, /b/, /s/, /k/, but would not state if these sounds were produced correctly in comparison to the adult community’s standard form. Can provide important information about the phonology of young children who make many errors in sound productions and who may or may not have an extensive repertoire of phonemes.
A type of analysis in which a child’s speech is compared to the adult model of his or her speech community. More commonly used in clinical settings.
Phonological Processes Disappearing by Age 3
Weak/unstressed syllable deletion
- Consonant assimilation
- Prevocalic voicing
- Fronting of velars
- Final consonant deletion
Phonological Processes Persisting After Age 3
- Final consonant devoicing
- Consonant-cluster reduction
Concept that looks at how functional words are within an individual child’s communication environment. Words such as stop, yes, give me, and some more allow children greater control over their environments.
Refers to the explicit awareness of the sound structure of a language, or attention to the internal structure of words. Viewed as a subcategory of metalinguistic awareness.
Refers to the child’s ability to manipulate and think about the structure of language.
Van Riper’s Traditional Approach
Foundation for motor articulation therapy that focused on auditory discrimination/perceptual training and phonetic placement. Emphasis on drills of increasing intensity.
McDonald’s Sensory-Motor Approach
Articulation therapy model based on the assumption that the syllable, not the isolated phoneme, is the basic unit of speech production. Principles of coarticulation are important to this approach. Training should begin at syllable level. May be helpful for children with oral-motor coordination difficulties.
Distinctive Features Approach (DFA)
Goal of this articulation therapy approach is to establish missing distinctive features or feature contrasts by teaching relevant sounds. Assumes that teaching a feature in the context of a few sounds will result in generalized production of other sounds with the same feature or features. Clinicians try to find a child’s underlying patterns (e.g., problems with the feature of stridency) and train one or several sounds in that pattern in hopes that generalization to other sounds in that pattern will occur. Clinicians typically use minimal pairs.
Approaches to articulation therapy that may utilize either minimal pair contrasts or maximal pair/opposition contrasts.
Metaphon Therapy Approach
Based on metalinguistic awareness, designed to enhance children’s metaphonological skills. Assumes that children’s difficulties do not necessarily lie in the actual motor production of speech sounds but in the acquisition of the rules of the phonological system. Thus clinicians, operate from the premise that the best way to help children improve their rule systems is to give them information that will encourage them to make their own changes and thus sound more intelligible. Often used with preschool children who have moderate to severe phonological disorders. Focuses on feature differences between sounds to help children develop an awareness that sounds can be classified by characteristics such as place, duration, and others. The therapy consists of short phases.
Phonological Process Approach
Based on the assumption that a child’s multiple errors reflect the operation of certain phonological rules and that the problem is essentially phonemic, not phonetic. A child’s errors are grouped and described as phonological processes and not discrete sounds. Most popular approach of this variety is Hodson and Paden’s (1991) Cycles Approach.