Ch. 5 - Connective Tissue; Ch. 6 - Adipose Tissue; Ch. 7 - Cartilage; Ch. 8 - Bone; Ch. 12&13 - Blood & Hematopoiesis Flashcards Preview

Histology > Ch. 5 - Connective Tissue; Ch. 6 - Adipose Tissue; Ch. 7 - Cartilage; Ch. 8 - Bone; Ch. 12&13 - Blood & Hematopoiesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 5 - Connective Tissue; Ch. 6 - Adipose Tissue; Ch. 7 - Cartilage; Ch. 8 - Bone; Ch. 12&13 - Blood & Hematopoiesis Deck (138):
1

What is the major component of CT?

ECM

2

Extracellular matrix (ECM)

Combinations of protein fibers and ground substance

3

Ground substance

Complex of anionic, hydrophilic proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and multi adhesive proteins (laminin, fibronectin, and others)
Provides the medium for exchange of nutrients and metabolic wastes between cells and the blood; transports materials

Part of the matrix

Has a lot of water called solvation water because it is very hydrophilic

4

Connective tissue (CT)

Abundant tissue that connects/holds and protects tissues and organs of the body
Contribute to form and shape

5

CT can provide a means of _______ and _______.

movement; storage

6

Give an example of how CT can provide a means of movement.

Bones are attached to skeletal muscle

7

Give two examples of how CT can provide a means of storage.

Bones store calcium
Adipose stores triglycerides

8

What are the three important components when describing CT?

1. Cells
2. Ground substance
3. Fibers

9

Matrix

Ground substance and fibers
Conduit by which materials go from blood to cell and cell to blood

10

What are the three components of ground substance?

Consists of structural glycoproteins, GAGs, and proteoglycans

11

Glycoproteins

Part of the ground substance
Insoluble anchoring proteins
Fibronectin, collagen, lamanin, and others

12

GAGs

Glucosaminoglycans
Part of the ground substance
Linear polysaccharide made up of units of repeating disaccharides
Hydrophilic --> absorb water

13

Proteoglycans

Part of the ground substance
Protein made up of a central core attached to many GAGs
Absorb water --> hydrophilic due to GAGs

14

What are the four classifications of CT?

1. Embryonic CT
2. CT proper
3. Special CT
4. Supporting CT

15

Embryonic CT

Forms early in development
Two kinds
1. Mesenchyme embryonic CT
2. Mucous CT

16

Mesenchyme embryonic CT

Develops into all CT cells
Also develops into endothelial, muscle, and blood

17

CT proper

Fibrous CT
Two kinds
1. Loose fibrous CT
2. Dense fibrous CT

18

Loose fibrous CT proper

Surrounds and supports organs and holds them in place
Made up of fibroblasts, matrix, and fibers
Lots of transient cells (i.e. RBC)

19

Dense fibrous CT proper

Two kinds
1. Dense regular fibrous CT
2. Dense irregular fibrous CT

20

Special CT

Special functions
Three kinds
1. Adipose
2. Hematopoietic
3. Elastic tissue

21

Adipose

Special CT
Fat tissue (found subcutaneously)
Insulator (thermoregulation), shock absorber, stores triglycerides

22

Hematopoietic tissue

Special CT

23

Elastic tissue

Special CT

24

Supporting CT

Provides support
Two kinds
1. Bone
2. Cartilage

25

Bone

Supporting CT

26

Cartilage

Supporting CT

27

Fibroblasts

Cells of the CT proper derived from embryonic mesenchyme CT cells
Long, somewhat fusiform cells with stellate endings
Very active
Fixed cell population
Secrete fibers and ground substance
Can become fibrocytes

28

Do fibroblasts readily undergo mitosis?

No

29

Fibrocyte

Very flat, elongated cells
Not very active

30

Myofibroblast

Intermediate cells
Contract
Found in muscle
Used for tissue repair by pulling wounded ends of tissue together (wound healing)

31

CT proper also has a transient cell population at times, consisting of _______, _______, _______, _______, and undifferentiated _______.

leukocytes; macrophages; mast cells; plasma cells; lymphocytes

32

What are the fibers of CT proper?

Collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers

33

Collagen fibers

CT proper fiber
Protein (has 28 forms)
Synthesis starts in the cell and ends outside the cell

34

Collagen synthesis pathway

(Inside cell) pre-procollagen --> procollagen --> (procollagen peptidase) --> (Outside cell) tropocollagen --> collagen

35

Reticular fibers

CT proper fiber
Form of collagen (collagen III)
Found in the matrix
Found in lymph nodes
Very thin, can't see with H&E stain
Can see with silver dye

36

Reticular fibers can be seen in paraffin sections using silver dye because they are _______.

argyrophilic

37

Argyrophilic

Affinity for silver salt

38

Reticular tissue

Reticular fibers and fibroblasts

39

Elastin synthesis pathway

Similar to the of collagen
Also needs a receptor
Also is finished outside the cell

(Inside cell) Pre-proelastin --> proelastin --> (outside cell) elastin

40

What three things is the ground substance of CT proper composed of?

1. GAGs
2. Proteoglycans
3. Glycoproteins

41

Disaccharide units of GAGs are made up of _______ linked to a _______.

uronic acid; hexosamine

42

Hexosamine

6-C amino sugar

43

Uronic acid of GAG disaccharide units

Glucaronic acid
Iduronic acid

44

What is the least abundant component of loose fibrous CT proper? What is their organization?

Fibers
They are very loosely attached and organized

45

What is the most abundant component of dense fibrous CT proper?

Fibers

46

Dense regular fibrous CT

Has many fibers running parallel in the same direction
Densely arranged with rows of fibroblasts in between
Found in tendons and ligaments (attaches to muscle and bone)

47

Dense irregular fibrous CT

Fibers all running in different directions
No rows of fibroblasts, dispersed throughout instead
Found in dermis of the skin (can stretch and recoil skin)

48

Elastic tissue

Dense regular fibrous CT made up of elastin

49

Yellow elastic tissue

Elastic tissue that help to hold the vertebrae in place and suspend the penis

50

Adipose tissue is a _______ population of cells.

stable

51

Stable population of cells

Overall population number remains the same
Controlled genetically in adults, so sometimes the numbers change

52

What determines the number of adipocytes?

Postnatal dietary intake

53

Higher caloric intake results in a _______ number of adipocytes for life, postnatally.

higher

54

The _______ cell number stays the same throughout life, however their _______ can fluctuate.

number; size

55

Adipose cells originate from what cells?

Mesenchyme embryonic CT cells

56

Adipose cells acting as _______ glands secrete the substances _______, _______, and _______.

endocrine; leptin; resistin; adiponectin

57

Leptin

Hormone released by adipose cells that regulates appetite by suppressing hunger

58

Resistin

Blocks insulin receptor; can induce diabetes

59

Adiponectin

Increases fatty acid utilization

60

What are the two ford of adipose tissue?

1. White/yellow adipose tissue
2. Brown adipose tissue

61

White/yellow adipose tissue

Most common adipose tissue in human adults
Aka unilocular adipose tissue -> form large clusters
Cytoplasm full of triglycerides (fat globule)
Very vascular

62

What is the function of white/yellow adipose tissue?

To store fat

63

What determines the color of white/yellow adipose tissue?

Dietary intake
Increased caretenoids --> yellow

64

Where are the three places that fat in adipose cells come from?

1. Dietary intake of fat
2. Excess carbohydrates --> converted to fat
3. Liver makes fats --> goes to blood --> combined with protein --> stored in fat cells

65

Adipose can respond to _______ and the _______, because they have _______.

hormones; ANS; receptors

66

Brown adipose

Most common in newborns and hibernating animals
In humans, it turns to white/yellow as we age
Produces heat
Stores fat in small vesicles instead of one large globule

67

What is the main function of brown adipose tissue?

Heat production

68

Thermogenin

Enzyme that uncouples oxidative phosphorylation
ATP from cellular respiration is released as heat, not stored as ATP
Aka uncoupling protein

69

Irisin

Hormone released from skeletal muscle when exercise is increased
Over time it turns white/yellow adipose to brown adipose

70

Quiescent

Non-active

71

What three components make up special CT?

Ground substance
Fibers
Cells

72

What is the ground substance of special CT composed of?

GAGs, hyaluronic acid, proteoglycans, glycoproteins specialized for attachment (chondronectin)

73

Cartilage

Special CT
Very flexible; shock absorber
Very resistant to mechanical absorption
Has a perichondrium

74

Perichondrium

Thick layer of fibrous CT surrounding the cartilage
Provides blood supply to cartilage
Contains blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves

75

What are the three types of cartilage?

1. Hyaline cartilage
2. Elasatic cartilage
3. Fibrous cartilage or Fibrocartilage

76

Hyaline cartilage

Most abundant cartilage
Slightly blue and translucent
Makes up embryonic skeleton
Found in articular surfaces of bones, walls of trachea, ends of ribs attaching them to the sternum, and forms the epiphyseal disk
Has a perichondrium

77

What are the cells of hyaline cartilage?

Chondroblasts (young) and chondrocytes (mature)

78

Chrondoblasts and chondrocytes produce _______.

matrix

79

Chondroblasts and chondrocytes become _______ in the matrix they secrete, called _______.

entrapped; lacunae

80

Hyaline cartilage cells grow via _______ growth.

appositional

81

Hyaline cartilage cells can _______, resulting in clusters of mature chondrocytes in _______. This results in an _______ group of chondrocytes within a single lacunae.

mitose; lacunae. isogenous

82

Isogenous

Derived from the same cell

83

Appositional growth

Most common
Cells divide and move outward, causing thickening of tissue

84

Interstitial growth

Restricted to early development
Articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate

85

Elastic cartilage

Cartilage that is identical to hyaline cartilage; same structure and method of growth, except for its abundant elastin fibers that increase flexibility

Found in the ear, nose, eustation tube, epiglottis, and voice box

86

Eustation tube

Tube in the back of the throat that connects the throat to the inner ear

87

Fibrous cartilage or Fibrocartilage

Cartilage that resembles both dense fibrous CT and hyaline cartilage; hybrid tissue
No perichondrium
Not as common
Found in intervertebral disks and the pubic symphysis

88

Pubic symphysis

Plate of cartilage found between the pubic bones of the hip bones and connects them

89

Bone

Specialized CT
Movement and support
Main storage site for insoluble calcium
Also stores phosphate
Matrix is insoluble and highly calcified
Has periosteum

90

What are the cells that make up bone?

Osteoprogenitor - embryonic-type cell that differentiates into osteoblasts
Osteoblasts - young
Osteocytes - mature
Osteoclasts

91

Bone growth is _______.

appositional

92

Metaphysis

Closed-off growth plate

93

Where is the bone marrow formed?

Cancellous/spongy tissue

94

Periosteum

Thick layer of fibrous CT, found near bone, rich in bv, lv, and nerves

95

Before slide prep, we must _______ bone.

decalcify

96

Compact bone

Bone made up of osteons
Found in the diaphysis of long bones

97

Osteon or Haversian system

Osteocytes entrapped in lacunae arranged in concentric circles around a central Haversian canal containing bv, lv, and nerves

Hava canaliculi

98

Canaliculi

Means "little legs"
Interconnect with one another and eventually to the Haversian canal where nutrients are transported

99

Bones cells communicate via _______.

gap junctions

100

Osteolasts

Highly phagocytic cells that phagocytize bone matrix
Found on bone surface
Up to 50 nuclei per cell

101

Where does the calcium from broken down bone matrix go?

It is absorbed by capillaries

102

How do osteoclasts break down bone matrix?

Osteoclasts pumo H+ into space to change pH so it's suitable for proteolytic enzymes
Ca2+ level drops in the body, causing parathyroid to secrete PTH --> effects osteoclasts to break down matrix and move Ca2+ into blood

However, osteoclasts don't have PTH receptors, so they don't respond directly to PTH

Osteoblasts have PTH receptors and will release RANKL in response to PTH, which stimulates the osteoclasts

103

RANKL

Osteoclast stimulating factor
Released by osteoblasts in response to PTH
Signals osteoclasts to break down bone matrix

104

Bone matrix is made up of _______ and _______ material.

organic; inorganic

105

What is the inorganic material that makes up bone matrix?

Most of the dry weight is calcium and phosphorus in insoluble form, called hydroxypatite

106

What is the organic material that makes up the bone matrix?

Collagen I, proteoglycans, and structural glycoproteins

107

Hydroxypatite

Insoluble calcium and phosphorus
forms crystals in bone matrix of very hard consistency
Crystals attract water around them, called a hydration cell

108

Spongy/Cancellous bone

Found in the ends of long bones, and in the bones of the pelvis, ribs, vertebrae, and skull
Bone marrow is found here and supplies nutrients
No periosteum nor Haversian canal

109

What are the two types of bone formation?

Appositional and interstitial growth

110

Blood

Specialized CT with liquid matrix
Composed of matrix and formed elements
Functions for gas exchange, delivers nutrients, hormones and bioregulator molecules to cells, thermoregulation, provides buffers, immune response, removes wastes

111

Formed elements

RBC, WBC, platelets

112

RBC

Aka erythrocytes
Formed in bone marrow
Cells are biconcave disks that carry O2 molecules
Have a flexibility protein called spectrin that allows RBCs to pass through capillaries

113

Spectrin

Protein that gives flexibility to RBCs

114

Monophyletic theory

Theory that all blood cells originate from one single progenitor cell that gave rise to two main stem cells that gave rise to all other blood cells

115

What three gases do RBCs exchange?

O2, CO2, nitrous oxide

116

What component of RBCs allows them to carry O2? How?

Hemoglobin (HbA). HbA is made up of 4 heme groups, each connected to a globin protein. Each heme group can bind to one O2 molecule.

117

How many O2 molecules can bind to one hemoglobin?

4

118

WBC

Aka leukocytes
Split into granulocytes and agranulocytes

119

Granulocytes

Leukocytes with granules in their cytoplasm
Stain with Wright's stain
Eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils

120

Eosinophils

Granulocytes with a strong affinity for the dye eosin

121

Basophils

Granulocytes with a strong affinity for the dye methylene blue
Rarest of the granulocytes
Closely related to mast cells; have the same CD marker protein and may be related

122

Neutrophils

Granulocytes with a neutral affinity for both of the dyes eosin and methylene blue

123

Agranulocytes

Leukocytes without granules in their cytoplasm
monocytes, lymphocytes thrombocytes

124

Monocyte

Agranulocyte with a large "kidney bean" nucleus

125

Lymphocyte

Agranulocyte immune cell
B cells and T cells

126

B cell

Lymphocyte
Differentiate into plasma cells
Ab cells
Humoral response

127

T cells

Lymphocyte
Adaptive response

128

Thrombocyte

Agranulocyte
Aka platelets
Formed in the bone marrow from megakaryocytes

129

How are thrombocytes formed?

The hormone thrombopoieten causes megakaryocytes to fractionate and pinch off
They are then carried to the circulation

130

Hematopoiesis

Blood cell formation
Occurs in the bone marrow

131

The progenitor blood cell gives rise to what two main stem cells?

Lymphoid stem cells and myeloid stem cells

132

Lymphoid stem cells give rise to what two types of blood cells?

T cells and B cells (lymphocytes)

133

Myeloid stem cells give rise to what three types of blood cells?

RBC, granulocytes, and thrombocytes

134

What is blood plasma made up of?

90% water
Solutes: various proteins, dissolved gases, nutrients, electrolytes, hormone-like substances, and wastes

135

What are some of the various proteins found in blood plasma?

Globulins, albumins, and fibrinogen

136

Globulin

Protein found in blood plasma are by the liver

137

Albumin

Protein found in blood plasma that regulate osmotic pressure of the blood

138

Fibrinogen

Protein found in blood plasma that aids in the formation of blood clots