Flashcards in Ch. 5 - Connective Tissue; Ch. 6 - Adipose Tissue; Ch. 7 - Cartilage; Ch. 8 - Bone; Ch. 12&13 - Blood & Hematopoiesis Deck (138):
What is the major component of CT?
Extracellular matrix (ECM)
Combinations of protein fibers and ground substance
Complex of anionic, hydrophilic proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and multi adhesive proteins (laminin, fibronectin, and others)
Provides the medium for exchange of nutrients and metabolic wastes between cells and the blood; transports materials
Part of the matrix
Has a lot of water called solvation water because it is very hydrophilic
Connective tissue (CT)
Abundant tissue that connects/holds and protects tissues and organs of the body
Contribute to form and shape
CT can provide a means of _______ and _______.
Give an example of how CT can provide a means of movement.
Bones are attached to skeletal muscle
Give two examples of how CT can provide a means of storage.
Bones store calcium
Adipose stores triglycerides
What are the three important components when describing CT?
2. Ground substance
Ground substance and fibers
Conduit by which materials go from blood to cell and cell to blood
What are the three components of ground substance?
Consists of structural glycoproteins, GAGs, and proteoglycans
Part of the ground substance
Insoluble anchoring proteins
Fibronectin, collagen, lamanin, and others
Part of the ground substance
Linear polysaccharide made up of units of repeating disaccharides
Hydrophilic --> absorb water
Part of the ground substance
Protein made up of a central core attached to many GAGs
Absorb water --> hydrophilic due to GAGs
What are the four classifications of CT?
1. Embryonic CT
2. CT proper
3. Special CT
4. Supporting CT
Forms early in development
1. Mesenchyme embryonic CT
2. Mucous CT
Mesenchyme embryonic CT
Develops into all CT cells
Also develops into endothelial, muscle, and blood
1. Loose fibrous CT
2. Dense fibrous CT
Loose fibrous CT proper
Surrounds and supports organs and holds them in place
Made up of fibroblasts, matrix, and fibers
Lots of transient cells (i.e. RBC)
Dense fibrous CT proper
1. Dense regular fibrous CT
2. Dense irregular fibrous CT
3. Elastic tissue
Fat tissue (found subcutaneously)
Insulator (thermoregulation), shock absorber, stores triglycerides
Cells of the CT proper derived from embryonic mesenchyme CT cells
Long, somewhat fusiform cells with stellate endings
Fixed cell population
Secrete fibers and ground substance
Can become fibrocytes
Do fibroblasts readily undergo mitosis?
Very flat, elongated cells
Not very active
Found in muscle
Used for tissue repair by pulling wounded ends of tissue together (wound healing)
CT proper also has a transient cell population at times, consisting of _______, _______, _______, _______, and undifferentiated _______.
leukocytes; macrophages; mast cells; plasma cells; lymphocytes
What are the fibers of CT proper?
Collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers
CT proper fiber
Protein (has 28 forms)
Synthesis starts in the cell and ends outside the cell
Collagen synthesis pathway
(Inside cell) pre-procollagen --> procollagen --> (procollagen peptidase) --> (Outside cell) tropocollagen --> collagen
CT proper fiber
Form of collagen (collagen III)
Found in the matrix
Found in lymph nodes
Very thin, can't see with H&E stain
Can see with silver dye
Reticular fibers can be seen in paraffin sections using silver dye because they are _______.
Affinity for silver salt
Reticular fibers and fibroblasts
Elastin synthesis pathway
Similar to the of collagen
Also needs a receptor
Also is finished outside the cell
(Inside cell) Pre-proelastin --> proelastin --> (outside cell) elastin
What three things is the ground substance of CT proper composed of?
Disaccharide units of GAGs are made up of _______ linked to a _______.
uronic acid; hexosamine
6-C amino sugar
Uronic acid of GAG disaccharide units
What is the least abundant component of loose fibrous CT proper? What is their organization?
They are very loosely attached and organized
What is the most abundant component of dense fibrous CT proper?
Dense regular fibrous CT
Has many fibers running parallel in the same direction
Densely arranged with rows of fibroblasts in between
Found in tendons and ligaments (attaches to muscle and bone)
Dense irregular fibrous CT
Fibers all running in different directions
No rows of fibroblasts, dispersed throughout instead
Found in dermis of the skin (can stretch and recoil skin)
Dense regular fibrous CT made up of elastin
Yellow elastic tissue
Elastic tissue that help to hold the vertebrae in place and suspend the penis
Adipose tissue is a _______ population of cells.
Stable population of cells
Overall population number remains the same
Controlled genetically in adults, so sometimes the numbers change
What determines the number of adipocytes?
Postnatal dietary intake
Higher caloric intake results in a _______ number of adipocytes for life, postnatally.
The _______ cell number stays the same throughout life, however their _______ can fluctuate.
Adipose cells originate from what cells?
Mesenchyme embryonic CT cells
Adipose cells acting as _______ glands secrete the substances _______, _______, and _______.
endocrine; leptin; resistin; adiponectin
Hormone released by adipose cells that regulates appetite by suppressing hunger
Blocks insulin receptor; can induce diabetes
Increases fatty acid utilization
What are the two ford of adipose tissue?
1. White/yellow adipose tissue
2. Brown adipose tissue
White/yellow adipose tissue
Most common adipose tissue in human adults
Aka unilocular adipose tissue -> form large clusters
Cytoplasm full of triglycerides (fat globule)
What is the function of white/yellow adipose tissue?
To store fat
What determines the color of white/yellow adipose tissue?
Increased caretenoids --> yellow
Where are the three places that fat in adipose cells come from?
1. Dietary intake of fat
2. Excess carbohydrates --> converted to fat
3. Liver makes fats --> goes to blood --> combined with protein --> stored in fat cells
Adipose can respond to _______ and the _______, because they have _______.
hormones; ANS; receptors
Most common in newborns and hibernating animals
In humans, it turns to white/yellow as we age
Stores fat in small vesicles instead of one large globule
What is the main function of brown adipose tissue?
Enzyme that uncouples oxidative phosphorylation
ATP from cellular respiration is released as heat, not stored as ATP
Aka uncoupling protein
Hormone released from skeletal muscle when exercise is increased
Over time it turns white/yellow adipose to brown adipose
What three components make up special CT?
What is the ground substance of special CT composed of?
GAGs, hyaluronic acid, proteoglycans, glycoproteins specialized for attachment (chondronectin)
Very flexible; shock absorber
Very resistant to mechanical absorption
Has a perichondrium
Thick layer of fibrous CT surrounding the cartilage
Provides blood supply to cartilage
Contains blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves
What are the three types of cartilage?
1. Hyaline cartilage
2. Elasatic cartilage
3. Fibrous cartilage or Fibrocartilage
Most abundant cartilage
Slightly blue and translucent
Makes up embryonic skeleton
Found in articular surfaces of bones, walls of trachea, ends of ribs attaching them to the sternum, and forms the epiphyseal disk
Has a perichondrium
What are the cells of hyaline cartilage?
Chondroblasts (young) and chondrocytes (mature)
Chrondoblasts and chondrocytes produce _______.
Chondroblasts and chondrocytes become _______ in the matrix they secrete, called _______.
Hyaline cartilage cells grow via _______ growth.
Hyaline cartilage cells can _______, resulting in clusters of mature chondrocytes in _______. This results in an _______ group of chondrocytes within a single lacunae.
mitose; lacunae. isogenous
Derived from the same cell
Cells divide and move outward, causing thickening of tissue
Restricted to early development
Articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate
Cartilage that is identical to hyaline cartilage; same structure and method of growth, except for its abundant elastin fibers that increase flexibility
Found in the ear, nose, eustation tube, epiglottis, and voice box
Tube in the back of the throat that connects the throat to the inner ear
Fibrous cartilage or Fibrocartilage
Cartilage that resembles both dense fibrous CT and hyaline cartilage; hybrid tissue
Not as common
Found in intervertebral disks and the pubic symphysis
Plate of cartilage found between the pubic bones of the hip bones and connects them
Movement and support
Main storage site for insoluble calcium
Also stores phosphate
Matrix is insoluble and highly calcified
What are the cells that make up bone?
Osteoprogenitor - embryonic-type cell that differentiates into osteoblasts
Osteoblasts - young
Osteocytes - mature
Bone growth is _______.
Closed-off growth plate
Where is the bone marrow formed?
Thick layer of fibrous CT, found near bone, rich in bv, lv, and nerves
Before slide prep, we must _______ bone.
Bone made up of osteons
Found in the diaphysis of long bones
Osteon or Haversian system
Osteocytes entrapped in lacunae arranged in concentric circles around a central Haversian canal containing bv, lv, and nerves
Means "little legs"
Interconnect with one another and eventually to the Haversian canal where nutrients are transported
Bones cells communicate via _______.
Highly phagocytic cells that phagocytize bone matrix
Found on bone surface
Up to 50 nuclei per cell
Where does the calcium from broken down bone matrix go?
It is absorbed by capillaries
How do osteoclasts break down bone matrix?
Osteoclasts pumo H+ into space to change pH so it's suitable for proteolytic enzymes
Ca2+ level drops in the body, causing parathyroid to secrete PTH --> effects osteoclasts to break down matrix and move Ca2+ into blood
However, osteoclasts don't have PTH receptors, so they don't respond directly to PTH
Osteoblasts have PTH receptors and will release RANKL in response to PTH, which stimulates the osteoclasts
Osteoclast stimulating factor
Released by osteoblasts in response to PTH
Signals osteoclasts to break down bone matrix
Bone matrix is made up of _______ and _______ material.
What is the inorganic material that makes up bone matrix?
Most of the dry weight is calcium and phosphorus in insoluble form, called hydroxypatite
What is the organic material that makes up the bone matrix?
Collagen I, proteoglycans, and structural glycoproteins
Insoluble calcium and phosphorus
forms crystals in bone matrix of very hard consistency
Crystals attract water around them, called a hydration cell
Found in the ends of long bones, and in the bones of the pelvis, ribs, vertebrae, and skull
Bone marrow is found here and supplies nutrients
No periosteum nor Haversian canal
What are the two types of bone formation?
Appositional and interstitial growth
Specialized CT with liquid matrix
Composed of matrix and formed elements
Functions for gas exchange, delivers nutrients, hormones and bioregulator molecules to cells, thermoregulation, provides buffers, immune response, removes wastes
RBC, WBC, platelets
Formed in bone marrow
Cells are biconcave disks that carry O2 molecules
Have a flexibility protein called spectrin that allows RBCs to pass through capillaries
Protein that gives flexibility to RBCs
Theory that all blood cells originate from one single progenitor cell that gave rise to two main stem cells that gave rise to all other blood cells
What three gases do RBCs exchange?
O2, CO2, nitrous oxide
What component of RBCs allows them to carry O2? How?
Hemoglobin (HbA). HbA is made up of 4 heme groups, each connected to a globin protein. Each heme group can bind to one O2 molecule.
How many O2 molecules can bind to one hemoglobin?
Split into granulocytes and agranulocytes
Leukocytes with granules in their cytoplasm
Stain with Wright's stain
Eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils
Granulocytes with a strong affinity for the dye eosin
Granulocytes with a strong affinity for the dye methylene blue
Rarest of the granulocytes
Closely related to mast cells; have the same CD marker protein and may be related
Granulocytes with a neutral affinity for both of the dyes eosin and methylene blue
Leukocytes without granules in their cytoplasm
monocytes, lymphocytes thrombocytes
Agranulocyte with a large "kidney bean" nucleus
Agranulocyte immune cell
B cells and T cells
Differentiate into plasma cells
Formed in the bone marrow from megakaryocytes
How are thrombocytes formed?
The hormone thrombopoieten causes megakaryocytes to fractionate and pinch off
They are then carried to the circulation
Blood cell formation
Occurs in the bone marrow
The progenitor blood cell gives rise to what two main stem cells?
Lymphoid stem cells and myeloid stem cells
Lymphoid stem cells give rise to what two types of blood cells?
T cells and B cells (lymphocytes)
Myeloid stem cells give rise to what three types of blood cells?
RBC, granulocytes, and thrombocytes
What is blood plasma made up of?
Solutes: various proteins, dissolved gases, nutrients, electrolytes, hormone-like substances, and wastes
What are some of the various proteins found in blood plasma?
Globulins, albumins, and fibrinogen
Protein found in blood plasma are by the liver
Protein found in blood plasma that regulate osmotic pressure of the blood