Ch 5- Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet Flashcards Preview

Health Science > Ch 5- Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 5- Understanding Nutrition and Your Diet Deck (56):
1

eating is a very complex behavior

there are 6 meanings and uses of food, more to it than just needing it to live

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physiological use of food

-need nutrients
-respond to hunger

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social use of food

-social interaction with food is key
-ex: gift, expression of hospitality, family gathering, holidays, festive occasions

4

emotional use of food

-eating due to emotions- or not eating
-express love, affection, caring
-punishment/reward
-comfort or soothe
-"food is my best friend"
-deal with food how we do feelings- starve, stuff, swallow

5

religious use of food

-dietary restrictions (constant or during certain times)
-part of a ceremony

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cultural use of food

-types of food/eating patterns vary globally/regionally
-"family recipes"

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political use of food

-food is bother personal and political
-state dinners
-fund raisers
-hunger strikes
-food rations
-food embargo
-vegetarian diets (some people view this as a political choice)

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Guidelines for a healthy adult

No chronic conditions
No special dietary needs (elite athlete, pregnant/breast-feeding, vegetarian)

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Nutrients

Elements in food
Required for energy, growth, repair and regulation of body processes

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Macronutrients

-Provide calories – energy or stored as fatty tissue
-Carbohydrates, fat, protein

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3 macronutrients

-Carbohydrates
-fat
-Proteins

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Carbohydrates

-Major energy source
-46–65% of calories
-4 cal/Graham – all types both simple and complex
-Simple carbohydrates
-Simple carbohydrates – digested more quickly example sugar
-Complex carbohydrates – more fiber, vitamins and minerals

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Fats

-9 cal/gram
=concentrated for of energy
-satiety=caused feeling of fullness
-palatability=pleasing taste
20-35% of calories should come from fats

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Saturated fats

(carefully limit)
-usually solid at room temperature
-animal sources
-tropical oils (palm, palm kernel, coconut)

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trans-fatty Acids

(avoid)
-hydrogenated oil (added a hydrogen)
-increase risk of CHP
-extends shelf life and keeps food from separating

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unsaturated fats

usually liquid at room temperature

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monounsaturated fats

-1 hydrogen missing
-olive, peanut

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polyunsaturated fats

more than one hydrogen missing
-safflower, soybean, corn

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protiens

-amino acids=building blocks of muscles, bones and blood
-essential amino acids (9)
-sources= animal products, eggs, dairy
-4 caloris/gram
-10-35% of calories could come from proteins

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complete protein

contains all 9 essential amino acids
-incomplete protein foods can be combined to provide sufficient nutrients (ex;vegetables, grains, legumes)

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micronutrients

-no calories
-vitamins, minerals, water

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vitamins

-organic compounds required in small amounts
-energy production, use of minerals, growth of healthy tissue

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fat soluble vitamins

can be stored in you body: A,D,E,K

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water soluble vitamins

can not be stored, excreted if excess: B-complex, C

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minerals

-5% of body composition
-21 minerals recognized for good health
-muscle and heart function, blood clotting, protein synthesis, red blood cells formation
-iron and calcium

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water

*most essential nutrient
-half of our body weight
-medium for nutrient and waste transport, controls body temperature, most bio chemical reactions
-6-10 glasses/day

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fiber

not a nutrient but worth mentioning
-important component of sound nutrition
-plant material, not digested
-grains, fruits, vegetables
-adults=21-38 grams/day (most only get 11)

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Recommended diet

-55-60% CABOHYDRATES (mostly complex)
-30% or less=fat
-15-20% protein

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2010 dietary guidelines

enjoy your food, but just eat less, avoid oversized portions

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2010- foods to increase

half of your plate should be fruits and vegetables
half of you grains should be whole grains
drink fat-free or low fat milk (1%)

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2010 foods to reduce

-reduce salt intake
-drink water, not sugary drinks

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Reading food labels

-compare within food categories
-guideline=100 calories of food per 3 grams of fat
-3 grams X 9 calories= 27/100= 27%

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fast foods

-high% of calories from fat
-high in salt and sugar
-"supersize menus"

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vegetarian diets

-rely on plant sources

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pesco-vegetarian

eat fish, dairy, eggs

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lactovegetarian

dairy but no eggs

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vegan

no animal products

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semi-vegetarians

meatless days, less meat consumption

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Dietary reference intakes

measures that refer to three types of reference values: estimated average requirement, recommended dietary allowance, and tolerable upper intake level

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enzymes

organic substances that control l the rate of physiological reactions but are not themselves altered in the process

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antioxidants

substances that may prevent cancer by interacting with and stabilizing unstable molecules known as free radicals

42

phytochemical

physically active components of foods believed to deactivate carcinogens and to function as antioxidants

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trace elements

minerals who's presence in the body occurs in very small amounts; micronutrient elements

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cruciferous vegetables

vegetables such as broccoli whose plants have flower with four leaves in the pattern of a cross

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enriched

food that have been resupplied with some of the nutritional elements (b vitamins and iron) removed during processing

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nutrient-dense foods

foods that provide substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals and comparatively few calories

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functional foods

foods capable of contributing to the improvement/prevention of specific health problems

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probiotics

living bacteria "good bugs" that help prevent disease and strengthen the immune system

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health claims

statements authorized by the FDA as having scientific proof of claims that a food, nutrient, or dietary supplement has an effect on a health-related condition

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food intolerance

an adverse reaction to a specific food that does not involve the immune system; usually caused by an enzyme deficiency

51

food additives

chemical compounds intentionally added to the food supply to change some aspect of the food, such as its color or texture

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genetically modified foods

crops that are bred with genes engineered in labs so the crops are improved, such as being drought, pest, or cold resistant; producing a higher yield; and/or having a higher nutritional content

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set point

a genetically programmed range of body weight, beyond which a person finds it difficult to gain or lose additional weight

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adaptive thermogenesis

the physiological response of the body to adjust its metabolic rate to the presence of food

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catabolism

the metabolic process of breaking down tissue foe the purpose of converting it into energy

56

phenylpropanolamine

an active chemical compound still found in some over-the-counter diet products and associated with increased risk of stroke