Ch. 6: General Anatomy & Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 6: General Anatomy & Physiology Deck (255):
1

Define: Anatomy

The study of the human body structure that can be seen with the naked eye and how the body parts are organized and the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts.

2

Define: Physiology

The study of the functions or activities performed by the body's structures.

3

Define: Histology

* Also known as Microscopic Anatomy.
* The study of the structure and composition of tissue.

4

Basic unit of all living things; minute mass of protoplasm capable of performing all the fundamental functions of life.

Cells

5

What is the basic structure of a Cell?

* Protoplasm
* Nucleus
* Organelle
* Cytoplasm
* Cell Membrane

6

Colorless, jellylike substance in cells; contains food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water.

Protoplasm

7

Is the dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell. It plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism.

Nucleus

8

Small structures or miniature organs with a cell that have thheir own function.

Organelle

9

Fluid within the nucleus of the cell that contains proteins and DNA; determines our genetic makeup.

Neucleplasm

10

The blueprint material of genetic information; contains all the information that controls the function of every living cell.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

11

All the protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus; the watery fluid containing food material necessary for cell growth, reproduction, and self-repair.

Cytoplasm

12

Part of the cell that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell.

Cell Membrane

13

What is Mitosis?

The usual process of cell reproduction in human tissue that occurs when the cell divides into two identical daughter cells.

14

A chemical process that takes place in living organisms whereby the cells are nourished and carry out their activities.

Cell Metabolism

15

Describe the Body's Metabolism.

The process of changing food into forms the body can use as energy.

16

What are the two phases of Metabolism and what are their functions?

* Anabolism: Is constructive metabolism, the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones. During this process, the body stores water, food, and oxygen for when these substances are needed most for cell growth and repair.

* Catabolism: The phase in which complex compounds within the cell are broken down into smaller ones. This process releases energy that is stored by special molecules to be used in muscle contractions, body secretions, or heat production.

17

A collection of similar cells that perform a particular function.

Tissue

18

What are the four types of Tissue?

* Connective
* Epithelial
* Muscle
* Nerve

19

What is Connective tissue?
Give an example.

Supports, protects, and binds together other tissues of the body.

(Ex: bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, fascia, and fat/adipose tissue)

20

A specialized connective tissue considered fat, which gives smoothness and contour to the body and cushions and insulates the body.

Adipose Tissue

21

What is Muscle tissue?

Contracts and moves the various parts of the body.

22

What are the nine major body organs and their functions?

* Brain: controls the body.
* Eyes: controls the body's vision.
* Heart: circulates the blood.
* Kidneys: excrete water and waste products.
* Lungs: supply oxygen to the blood.
* Liver: removes waste created by digestion.
* Skin: external protective coating that covers the body.
* Stomach: digests food, along with the intestines.
* Intestines: digests food along with the stomach.

23

What are the eleven main body systems?

1) Skeletal
2) Muscular
3) Nervous
4) Circulatory
5) Lymphatic/Immune
6) Endocrine
7) Digestive
8) Excretory
9) Respiratory
10) Integumentary
11) Reproductive

24

I am the physical foundation of the body; which consists of the bones and moveable and immovable joints.

Which body system am I?

Skeletal System

25

I cover, shape, and support the skeletal tissue; I also contract and move various parts of the body; consists of muscle.

Which body system am I?

Muscular System

26

I carry messages to and from the brain and control and coordinate all bodily functions. I consist of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

Which body system am I?

Nervous System

27

I control the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels.

Which body system am I?

Circulatory System

28

I protect the body from disease by developing immunities and destroying disease-causing toxins and bacteria.

Which body system am I?

Lymphatic/Immune System

29

I affect growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the body; I consist of specialized glands.

Which body system am I?

Endocrine System

30

I change food into nutrients and wastes; I consist f the mouth, stomach, intestines, salivary and gastric glands.

Which body system am I?

Digestive System

31

I purify the body by elimination of waste matter; I consist of kidneys, liver, skin, intestines, and lungs.

Which body system am I?

Excretory System

32

I enable breathing, supply the body with oxygen, and eliminate carbon dioxide as a waste product; I consist of lungs and air passages.

Which body system am I?

Respiratory System

33

I serve as a protective covering for the body and help in temperature regulation; I consist of skin, accessory organs such as oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails.

Which body system am I?

Integumentary System

34

I perform the function of reproducing and perpetuating the human race.

Which body system am I?

Reproductive System

35

The study of the anatomy, structure, and functions of the bones.

Osteology

36

How many bones is the human skeleton comprised of?

206

37

The body has how many movable and semi-movable joints?

Over 230

38

What is a Joint?

The connection between two or more bones of the skeleton.

39

The human head has how many bones?
The face consists of how many?

22 and 14

40

An oval, bony case that protects the brain.

Cranium

41

What are the bones of the Cranium?

* Occipital Bone
* Parietal Bones
* Frontal Bone
* Temporal Bones
* Ethmoid Bone
* Sphenoid Bone

42

Name the Cranial Bone:

* The hindmost bone of the skull; forms the back of the skull above the nape.

Occipital Bone

43

Name the Cranial Bone:

* Forms the sides and crown (top) of the cranium.

Parietal Bone

44

Name the Cranial Bone:

* Forms the forehead

Frontal Bone

45

Name the Cranial Bone:

* Form the sides of the head in the ear region.

Temporal Bone

46

Name the Cranial Bone:

* The light, spongy bone between the eye sockets that form part of the nasal cavities.

Ethmoid Bone

47

Name the Cranial Bone:

* Joins all the bones of the cranium together.

Sphenoid Bone

48

Structures composed of specialized tissues designed to perform specific functions in plants and animals.

Organs

49

What are the bones of the face?

* Nasal bones
* Lacrimal bones
* Zygomatic bones
* Maxillary bones
* Mandible
* Turbinal bones
* Vomer bone
* Palatine bones

50

Name the Facial Bone:

* Form the bridge of the nose.

Nasal bones

51

Name the Facial Bone:

* The smallest and most fragile bones of the face, are situated at the front inside part of the sys sockets.

Lacrimal Bones

52

Name the Facial Bone:

* a.k.a. malar or cheekbones.

Zygomatic Bones

53

Name the Facial Bone:

* Form the upper jaw.

Maxillary Bones

54

Name the Facial Bone:

* Forms the lower jawbone, the largest and strongest bone of the face.

Mandible

55

Name the Facial Bone:

* Two thin layers of spongy bone on either of the outer walls of the nasal depression.

Turbinal Bones

56

Name the Facial Bone:

* A flat, thin bone that forms part of the nasal septum.

Vomer Bone

57

Name the Facial Bone:

* Form the hard palate on the roof of mouth.

Palatine Bones

58

What is the smallest most fragile bone of the face?

Lacrimal Bone (front inside part of the eye socket)

59

What is the largest and strongest bone of the face?

Mandible (lower jawbone)

60

What are the 2 bones of the Neck?
Describe them.

* Hyoid bone: a U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles.
* Cervical Vertebrae: the seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column; located in the neck region.

61

What are the bones of the Chest?

* Thorax
* Ribs
* Scapula
* Sternum
* Clavicle

62

Name the Chest Bone:

* The chest or pulmonary trunk consisting of the sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. An elastic boney cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart, lungs, and other internal organs.

Thorax

63

Name the Chest Bone:

* Twelve pairs of bones forming the wall of the Thorax.

Ribs

64

Name the Chest Bone:

* a.k.a. shoulder blade. The large, flat, triangular bone of the shoulder.

Scapula

65

Name the Chest Bone:

* a.k.a. breastbone. The flat bone that forms the ventral (front) support of the ribs.

Sternum

66

Name the Chest Bone:

* a.k.a. collarbone. The bone that joins the sternum and scapula

Clavicle

67

What are the bones of the Arms and Hands?

* Humerus
* Ulna
* Radius
* Carpus
* Metacarpus
* Phalanges

68

Name the Arm Bone:

* The uppermost and largest bone of the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder.

Humerus

69

Name the Arm Bone:

* The inner and larger bone of the forearm (lower arm), attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger.

Ulna

70

Name the Arm Bone:

* The smaller bone of the forearm on the same side as the thumb.

Radius

71

Name the Hand Bone:

* a.k.a. Wrist bones. A flexible joint composed of 8 small, irregular bones (carpals) held together by ligaments.

Carpus

72

Name the Hand Bone:

* a.k.a. Palms. Consists of 5 long, slender bones called metacarpal bones.

Metacarpus

73

Name the Hand Bone:

* a.k.a. Digits. The bones of the fingers; 3 in each finger and 2 in each thumb, totaling 14 bones.

Phalanges

74

The study of the nature, structure, function, and diseases of the muscle.

Myology

75

How many muscles are in the human body?
How many muscles are in the face?

Over 630 in the human body,
30 of which are in the face.

76

What are 3 types of muscular tissue?

* Striated muscles:
a.k.a. skeletal or voluntary.

* Nonstriated muscles:
a.k.a. involuntary, visceral, or smooth.

* Cardiac muscle:
the involuntary muscle that makes up the heart.

77

Describe the function of Striated Muscles.

Striated Muscles:

a.k.a. skeletal or voluntary. Attached to the bones and are controlled by the will. Nerve impulses trigger a reaction from the muscle which contracts, moving its associated bone or joint.

78

Describe the function of Non-Striated Muscles.

Non-Striated Muscles:

a.k.a. involuntary, visceral, or smooth. Functions automatically, without conscious will. Found in the digestive and circulatory systems as well as some internal organs.

79

Describe the function of the Cardiac Muscle.

Cardiac Muscle:

The involuntary muscle that makes up the heart. This muscle is unique and not found in any other part of the body. It's striated and has a crossing, banding pattern that allows contraction and thus the beating of the heart. Under the control of the autonomic nervous system.

80

What are the 3 parts of a muscle?
What are their functions?

* Origin: the more fixed part of the muscle closest to the skeleton, which flexes, but remains stationary.

* Belly: the middle part of the muscle.

* Insertion: the part of the muscle which is the movable attachment and farthest from the skeleton.

81

In what direction do you asses all muscles during a massage?

From Insertion to Origin.

82

What are some ways muscular tissue can be stimulated?

* Massage (hand or electric vibrator)
* Electrical therapy current (high-frequency, galvanic, microcurrent)
* Light rays (infrared, LED, UV radiation)
* Heat rays (heating lamps or caps)
* Moist heat (steamers or warm towels)
* Nerve impulses (through nervous system)
* Chemicals (certain acids and salts)

83

What are the 4 muscles of the Scalp?

* Epicranius / Occipitofrontalis
* Occipitalis
* Frontalis
* Epicranial Aponeurosis

84

Name the Scalp Muscle:

* A broad muscle that covers the top of the skull. Consists of two parts, Occipitalis and Frontalis.

Epicranius / Occipitofrontalis

85

Name the Scalp Muscle:

* The back of the epicranius; is the muscle that draws the scalp backward.

Occipitalis

86

Name the Scalp Muscle:

* The anterior (front) portion of the epicranius. This muscle raises the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward, and causes wrinkles across the forehead.

Frontalis

87

Name the Scalp Muscle:

* A tendon connecting the occipitalis and frontalis.

Epicranial Aponeurosis

88

What are the Muscles of the Ear?
Describe them.

* Auricularis Superior: the muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward.

* Auricularis Anterior: the muscle inn front of the ear that draws the ear forward.

* Auricularis Posterior: the muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backward.

89

What are the Muscles of the Mastication (Chewing)?

* Masseter
* Temporalis
* Medial Pterygoid
* Lateral Pterygoid

90

What are the Muscles of the Neck?
Describe them.

* Platysma:
a broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of chin. Responsible for lowering the lower jaw and lip.

* Sternocleidomastoid (SCM):
the muscle extending along side of the neck from the ear to the collarbone. Acts to rotate the head from side to side, up and down.

91

What are the Muscles of the Eyebrow and Nose?

* Corrugator
* Orbicularis Oculi
* Procerus
* Nasalis

92

Name the Brow Muscle:

* The muscle located beneath the frontalis and orbicularis. It draws the eyebrow down and wrinkles the forehead vertically.

Corrugator

93

Name the Brow Muscle:

* The ring muscle of the eye-socket; it closes the eye.

Orbicularis Oculi

94

Name the Nose Muscle:

* Lowers the eyebrows and causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose.

Procerus

95

Name the Nose Muscle:

* A two part muscle which covers the nose. Includes the transverse part and the alar part, which flair the nostrils.

Nasalis

96

What are the Muscles of the Mouth?

* Buccinator
* Depressor anguli oris
* Depressor labii inferioris
* Levator anguli oris
* Levator labii superioris
* Mentalis
* Orbicularis oris
* Risorius
* Zygomaticus major and minor

97

Name the Muscle of the Mouth:

* The thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips, as in when blowing a whistle.

Buccinator

98

Name the Muscle of the Mouth:

* a.k.a. Triangularis. The muscle extending along side the chin that pulls down the corners of the mouth.

Depressor Anguli Oris

99

Name the Muscle of the Mouth:

* The muscle surrounding the lower lip that depresses it and draws the lower lip to one side.

Depressor Labii Inferioris

100

Name the Muscle of the Mouth:

* a.k.a. Caninus. A muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inward.

Levator Anguli Oris

101

Name the Muscle of the Mouth:

* A muscle that elevates the lip and dilates the nostrils, as in expressing distaste.

Levator Labii Superioris

102

Name the Muscle of the Mouth:

* The muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin.

Mentalis

103

Name the Muscle of the Mouth:

* The flat band around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers, and wrinkle the lips.

Orbicularis Oris

104

Name the Muscle of the Mouth:

* The muscle that draws the corner of the mouth out and back, as in grinning.

Risorius

105

Name the Muscle of the Mouth:

* Muscles extending from the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth that elevate the lip, as in laughing.

Zygomaticus Major and Minor

106

What are the Muscles that Attach the Arms to the Body?
Describe them.

* Latissimus dorsi: a large, flat, triangular muscle that covers the lower back.

* Pectoralis major and minor: muscles of the chest that assist the swinging movements of the arm.

* Serratus anterior: a muscle of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm.

107

What are the Muscles of the Shoulder and Arms?

* Trapezius
* Biceps
* Deltoid
* Triceps
* Extensors
* Flexors
* Pronators
* Supinator

108

Name the Shoulder Muscle:

* Covers the back of the neck, shoulders, and upper and middle region of the back; shrugs shoulders and stabilizes the scapula.

Trapezius

109

Name the Shoulder Muscle:

* Produce the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm; they lift the forearm, flex the elbow, and turn the palms outward.

Biceps

110

Name the Shoulder Muscle:

* A large, triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body.

Deltoid

111

Name the Arm Muscle:

* A large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm.

Triceps

112

Name the Arm Muscle:

* Muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line.

Extensors

113

Name the Arm Muscle:

* Extensor muscles of the wrist, are involved in flexing the wrist.

Flexors

114

Name the Arm Muscle:

* Muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward.

Pronators

115

Name the Arm Muscle:

* Muscle that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward.

Supinator

116

What are the muscles of the Hand?
Describe them.

* Abductors: muscles that draw a body part away from the midline of the body.

* Adductors: muscles that draw a body part inward toward the median axis of the body.

117

The scientific study of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system.

Neurology

118

What are the 3 main subdivisions of the Nervous System?

* Central Nervous System (CNS)
* Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
* Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

119

I consist of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves. I control consciousness and many mental activities, voluntary functions of the 5 senses, and voluntary muscle actions.

What nervous system am I?

Central Nervous System

120

I connect the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system. I have both sensory and motor nerves. My job is to carry messages to and from the central nervous system.

What nervous system am I?

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

121

I control the involuntary muscles. I regulate the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, heart, and breathing.

What nervous system am I?

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

122

What are the 4 parts of the brain?

* Cerebrum
* Cerebellum
* Diencephalon
* Brain Stem

123

What is the largest and most complex mass of nerve tissue in the body?

The Brain

124

Describe the Cerebrum.

Makes up the bulk of the brain. located in the front, upper part of the cranium. Within it is the Cerebral Coortex, located in the part from which most messages are sent - such as those conveying thought, hearing, and sight.

125

Describe the Cerebellum

Latin for little brain. Located at the base of the cerebrum and is attached to the brain stem. It acts to control movement, coordinate voluntary muscular activity, and maintain balance and equilibrium.

126

Describe the Diencephalon.

Located in the uppermost part of the midbrain and has two main parts called the Thalamus and the Hypothalamus.

127

What are the two main parts of the Diencephalon?
Describe them.

* Thalamus:
Is the upper part of the diencephalon. It acts as a relay station for sensory impulses and plays a role in the recognition of pain and temperature in the body.

* Hypothalamus:
Is the lower part of the diencephalon. It controls many bodily functions such as body temperature and controls the pituitary gland.

128

Describe the Brain Stem.

Connects the spinal coord to the brain. It consists of three parts, the Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata. It is involved in regulating such vital functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure.

129

What is the Spinal Cord?

A continuation of the brain stem and originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected by the spinal column.

130

Describe Neuron / Nerve Cell

The primary structural unit of the nervous system.

131

What are Neurons / Nerve Cells composed of?

Cell Body and Nucleus

132

What are Dendrites?

Nerve fibers extending from the nerve cell that receives impulses from other neurons.

133

Describe Nerves.

whitish cords, made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted.

134

What are the 2 types of Nerves?

*Sensory (afferent) Nerves
*Motor (efferent) Nerves

135

Describe Sensory and Motor Nerves.

*Sensory (afferent) Nerves:
Carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations such as touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced

*Motor (efferent) Nerves:
Carry impulses from the brain to the muscles or glands. These transmitted impulses produce movement.

136

Define Reflex

An automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor along the afferent nerve to the spinal cord and a responsive impulse back along an efferent neuron to a muscle, causing a reaction.

137

How many pairs of cranial nerves arise at the base of the brain and the brain stem?

12

138

Describe cranial nerve #1 : Olfactory Nerve

Relays information about smell.
The Olfactory Nerve connects the inside of the nose with the olfactory centers in the brain.

139

Describe cranial nerve #2 : Optic Nerve

Each Optic Nerve is a bundle of approximately one million fibers that send visual signals from the retina to the brain.

140

Describe cranial nerve #3, 4, and 6 : Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducent Nerves

These nerves carry stimuli for voluntary movements of the eye muscles and eyelids. They also control the pupil dilation and changes in the lens during focusing.

141

Describe cranial nerve #5 : Trigeminal Nerve

Branches of this tripartite nerve all contain sensory fibers that relay signals from the head, face, and teeth; the motor fibers innervate the chewing muscles. The branches are known as Ophthalmic, Maxillary, & Mandibular.

142

Describe cranial nerve #7 : Facial Nerves

Branches of this nerve innervate the taste buds, the skin of the external ear, and the salivary and lacrimal glands. They also control muscles used in facial expressions.

143

Describe cranial nerve #8 : Vestibulocochlear Nerve

Sensory fibers in the Vestibular and Cochlear branches of this nerve transmit information about sound, balance, and orientation of the head.

144

Describe cranial nerve #10 : Vagus Nerve

The name "Vagus" means "Wanderer," and this nerve's sensory, motor, and autonomic fibers are involved in many vital bodily functions, including gland function, digestion, and heartbeat.

145

Describe cranial nerve #11 : Spinal Accessory Nerve

This nerve brings about movement in the head and shoulders. It also innervates muscles in the pharynx and larynx and is involved in the production of voice sounds.

146

Describe cranial nerve #9 and 12 : Glossopharyngeal and Hypoglossal Nerves

Motor fibers of these nerves are involved in swallowing, while the sensory fibers relay information about pain, taste, touch, and heat from the tongue and pharynx.

147

The Fifth Cranial Nerve (Trifacial/Trigeminal Nerve) consists of what 3 branches? describe them.

* Ophthalmic Nerve
* Mandibular Nerve
* Maxillary Nerve

148

What parts of the face does the Ophthalmic Nerve affect?

The skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball, and nasal passage.

149

What parts of the face does the Mandibular Nerve affect?

The muscles of the chin and lower lip.

150

What part of the face does the Maxillary Nerve affect?

The upper part of the face.

151

Name the Trigeminal Nerve:

* Affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull.

Auriculotemporal Nerve

152

Name the Trigeminal Nerve:

* Affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip, and mouth.

Infraorbital Nerve

153

Name the Trigeminal Nerve:

* Affects the membrane and skin of the nose.

Infratrochlear Nerve

154

Name the Trigeminal Nerve:

* Affects the skin of the lower lip and chin.

Mental Nerve

155

Name the Trigeminal Nerve:

* Affects the point and the lower side of the nose.

Nasal Nerve

156

Name the Trigeminal Nerve:

* Affects the skin of the forehead, scalp, eyebrow, and upper eyelid.

Supraorbital Nerve

157

Name the Facial Nerve:

* Affects the skin between the eyes and upper side of the nose.

Supratorchlit Nerve

158

Name the Facial Nerve:

* Affects the muscles of the upper part of the cheek.

Zygomatic Nerve

159

Name the Facial Nerve:

* Affects the muscles of the mouth.

Buccal Nerve

160

Name the Facial Nerve:

* Affect the side of the neck and platysma muscle. (Branches of the facial nerve)

Cervical Nerves

161

Name the Facial Nerve:

* Affects the muscles behind the ear at the base of the skull.

Posterior Auricular Nerve

162

Name the Facial Nerve:

* Affects the muscles of the temples, side of the forehead, eyebrow, eyelid, and upper part of the cheek.

Temporal Nerve

163

Name the Accessory Nerve:

* Located at the side of the neck; affects the front and sides of the neck as far down as the breastbone.

Cervical Cutaneous Nerve

164

Name the Accessory Nerve:

* Located at the side of the neck; affects the face, ears, neck, and parotid gland.

Greater Auricular Nerve

165

Name the Accessory Nerve:

* Located at the back of the head; affects the scalp as far up as the top of the head.

Greater Occipital Nerve

166

Name the Accessory Nerve:

* Located at the base of the skull; affects the scalp and muscles behind the ear.

Smaller Occipital Nerve

167

Name the Arm/Hand Nerve:

* A sensory-motor nerve that, with its branches, supplies the fingers.

Digital Nerve

168

Name the Arm/Hand Nerve:

* A sensory-motor nerve that, with its bunches, supplies the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand.

Radial Nerve

169

Name the Arm/Hand Nerve:

* A smaller sensory-motor nerve than the radial & ulnar nerves; with its branches, it supplies the arm and hand.

Median Nerve

170

Name the Arm/Hand Nerve:

* A sensory-motor nerve that, with its branches, affects the little-finger side of the arm and palm of the hand.

Ulnar Nerve

171

Define: Vascular System

Consists of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries for the distribution of blood throughout the body.

172

Is often referred to as the body's pump.

The Heart

173

What is the Heart's main function?

To keep the blood moving within the circulatory system.

174

About how many times per minute does the heart beat in a normal resting state?

72 - 80 beats per min.

175

How many chambers and valves are in the heart?

4 Chambers and 4 Valves

176

The upper, thin-walled chambers of the heart.

Right and Left Atrium.

177

The lower, thick-walled chambers of the hear.

Right and Left Ventricle.

178

Located between the chambers, what allows blood to flow in only one direction?

Valves

179

Blood is constant and continuous. What two systems attend to this circulation?

* Pulmonary Circulation
* Systemic or General Circulation

180

Define: Pulmonary Circulation

Sends blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated.

181

Define: Systemic or General Circulation

Carries the oxygenated blood from the heart throughout the body and back to the heart again.

182

What are Blood Vessels?

Tube-like structures that include the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins.

183

Name the Blood Vessel:

* Thick-walled, muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the arterioles.

Arteries

184

What is the largest artery in the body?

Aorta

185

Name the Blood Vessel:

* Small arteries that deliver blood to capillaries.

Arterioles

186

Name the Blood Vessel:

* Tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to venules. Brings nutrients to the cells and carries any waste materials.

Capillaries

187

Name the Blood Vessel:

* Small vessels that connect the capillaries to the veins. They collect blood from the capillaries and drain it into the veins.

Venules

188

Name the Blood Vessel:

Thin-walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries. They contain cup-like valves that keep blood flowing in one direction to the heart and prevent the blood from flowing backwards.

Veins

189

Define: Blood

Is a nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system and is considered connective tissue.

190

What causes blood to change color?

The color change occurs during the exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen as the blood passes through the lungs, and the exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide as the blood circulates through the body.

191

About how much blood is in the human body?

8-10 Pints (3.8 - 4.7 liters)

192

Blood is approximately __% Water.

83%

193

What are the critical functions of blood. Name at least two.

* Carries water, oxygen, food, and secretions to all cells of the body.
* Carries away carbon dioxide and waste products to be eliminated through the lungs, skin, kidneys, and large intestine.
* Helps to equalize the body's temperature.
* White blood cells aids in protecting the body from harmful bacteria and infections.
* Closes injured minute blood vessels by forming clots; prevents blood loss.

194

What is produced in the red bone marrow and contains hemoglobin?

Red Blood Cells
(Erythrocytes)

195

What is Hemoglobin?

A complex iron protein that gives blood its bright red color.

196

What is the function of Red Blood Cells?

To carry oxygen to the body cells.

197

What type of blood cell performs the function of destroying disease causing germs?

White Blood Cells
(Leukocytes)

198

What contributes to the blood-clotting process? They are much smaller than red blood cells.

Platelets
(Thrombocytes)

199

Define: Plasma

The fluid part of the blood in which the red and white blood cells and platelets flow. Is about 90% water and contains proteins, sugars, and oxygen.

200

What is the main function of Plasma?

To carry food and secretions to the cells and to take carbon dioxide away from the cells.

201

What is the Common Carotid Artery?

The main source of blood supply to the head, face, and neck. Located on either side of the neck, and each one is divided into an Internal and External branch.

202

Describe both the Internal and External Carotid Artery.

* Internal Carotid Artery supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose, and internal ear.
* External Carotid Artery supplies blood to anterior (front) parts of the scalp, ear, face, neck, and side of head

203

What type of artery supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth, and nose.

Facial Artery / External Maxillary Artery

204

Name the External Maxillary Artery:

* Supplies blood to the chin and lower lip.

Submental Artery

205

Name the External Maxillary Artery:

* Supplies blood to the lower lip.

Inferior Labial Artery

206

Name the External Maxillary Artery:

* Supplies blood to the side of the nose.

Angular Artery

207

Name the External Maxillary Artery:

* Supplies blood to the upper lip and region of the nose.

Superior Labial Artery

208

What type of artery supplies blood to the muscles of the front, side, and top of the head?

Superficial Temporal Artery

209

Name the External Temporal Artery:

* Supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelid. Branches of Supraorbital Artery.

Frontal Artery

210

Name the External Temporal Artery:

* Supplies blood to the side and crown of the head.

Parietal Artery

211

Name the External Temporal Artery:

* Supplies blood to the skin and masseter.

Transverse Facial Artery

212

Name the External Temporal Artery:

* Supplies blood to the temples.

Middle Temporal Artery

213

Name the External Temporal Artery:

* Supplies blood to the front part of the ear.

Anterior Auricular Artery

214

Name the External Artery:

* Supplies blood to the skin and muscles of the scalp and back of the head up to the crown.

Occipital Artery

215

Name the External Artery:

* Supplies the scalp, the area behind and above the ear, and the skin behind the ear.

Posterior Auricular Artery

216

Name the Internal Artery:

* Supplies blood to the upper eyelids and forehead.

Supraorbital Artery

217

Name the Internal Artery:

* Supplies blood to the muscles of the eye.

Infraorbital Artery

218

What is the Lymphatic/Immune System made up of?

* Lymph
* Lymph nodes
* Thymus gland
* Spleen
* Lymph Vessels

219

Define: Lymph

A colorless, watery fluid derived from blood plasma as a result of filtration through the capillary walls into the tissue space.

220

What is Interstitial fluid?

Blood plasma found in the spaces between tissue cells.

221

What are Lymphatic vessels that occur in clusters and are distributed throughout most of the body?

Lymph Capillaries

222

What are Lymph Nodes?

Gland-like structures found inside the vessels.

223

What are the 3 primary functions of the Lymphatic System?

* To act as a defense against invading bacteria and toxins.

* To remove waste material from the body cells to the blood.

* To aid in reducing swelling, inflammation, and accumulations in the blood vessels.

224

What is the Endocrine System?

A group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body.

225

What are Glands?

Specialized organs that remove certain elements from the blood to convert them into new compounds.

226

These glands produce a substance that travels through small, tube-like ducts. Sweat and Oil glands of the skin belong to this group.

Exocrine Glands
(Duct Glands)

227

These glands release secretions called hormones directly into the bloodstream.

Endocrine Glands
(Ductless Glands)

228

What are Hormones?

Secretions produced by one of the Endocrine Glands and carried by the bloodstream or body fluid to another part of the body, or a body organ, to stimulate functional activity or secretion such as insulin, adrenaline, and estrogen.

229

Name the Gland:

* Plays a major role in sexual development, sleep, and metabolism.

Pineal Gland

230

Name the Gland:

* It affects almost every physiologic process of the body: growth, blood pressure, contractions during childbirth, breast-milk production, sexual organ functions, thyroid gland function, and the conversion of food to energy.

Pituitary Gland

231

What is the most complex organ of the Endocrine System?

Pituitary Gland

232

Name the Gland:

* Controls how quickly the body burns energy (metabolism), makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones.

Thyroid Gland

233

Name the Gland:

* Regulates blood calcium and phosphorus levels so that the nervous and muscular systems can function properly.

Parathyroid Gland

234

Name the Gland:

* Secretes enzyme-producing cells that are responsible for digesting carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Pancreas

235

Name the Gland:

* Secretes about 30 steroid hormones and control metabolic process of the body, including the flight-or-flight response.

Adrenal Glands

236

Name the Gland:

* Function in sexual reproduction as well as determining male and female sexual characteristics.

Ovaries / Testes

237

What is the Digestive System?

The system responsible for changing food into nutrients and waste.

238

What are Digestive Enzymes?

Chemicals that change certain kinds of food into a form that can be used by the body.

239

The Digestive System prepares food for use through what 5 basic activities?

* Ingestion
* Peristalsis
* Digestion
* Absorption
* Defecation

240

Define: Ingestion

Eating, or taking food into the body.

241

Define: Peristalsis

Moving food along the digestive tract.

242

Define: Digestion

Breakdown of food by mechanical and chemical means.

243

Define: Absorption

The transport of fully digested food into the circulatory system to feed the tissues and cells.

244

Define: Defecation

Elimination of waste from the body.

245

What is the Excretory System?

The system responsible for purifying the body by eliminating waste matter.

246

The kidneys excrete _____.

Urine

247

The liver discharges _____.

Bile

248

The skin eliminates _____.

Perspiration

249

The large intestine eliminates _____ and _____ food.

Decomposed and Undigested

250

The lungs exhale _____.

Carbon Dioxide.

251

What is the Respiratory System?

The system consisting of the lungs and air passages; enables breathing.

252

Define: Respiration

The process of inhaling and exhaling; the act of breathing.

253

What is the Diaphragm?

A muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing.

254

What is the Integumentary System?

It's made up of the skin and its various accessory organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails.

255

What is the Reproductive System?

* Includes the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina in woman; and testes, prostate gland, penis, and urethra in the male.

* Performs the function of producing children and passing on our genetics from one generation to another.