Flashcards in Ch 6 - Genes & Heredity Deck (43):
The passing of traits from parent to offspring is called?
Segment of DNA that controls a trait
Offspring that differ from their parents in one or more traits
-father of genetics
- experiments with garden peas.
Mendel choose the garden pea because...
Had a number of different characteristics
Could both self fertilize and cross fertilize
- Mendel tryed to use
-exhibit the same traits as their parents, same as in every following generation
Determines the expressed gene
Overruled by dominant genes
The first generation
Tt, TT, tt
Always use same letter.
Both genes are the same
Genotype that are different
2 or more alternate forms of a gens
Single - trait inheritance
Mono hybrid cross
Punnnet square, is used to find.....
Genotype and phenotype
-determine the genotype of dominant phenotype
-preformed between the unknown genotype and homozygous recessive genotype
Most traits have more then two alleles (or options)
-when two genes are equally dominant and interact to produce a new phenotype
Different types of incomplete dominance
When a totally different phenotype is expressed
When both genes are expressed at the same time.
-ratio 9:3:3:1 --both heterozygous for both and complete dominant
Number of chances for an event / number of possible combinations
When determining probabilities
2 rules must be followed
1. The rule of independent events -pervious events don't effect future events
2. The product rule- multiply probabilities
The crossing of desired traits to produce offspring with these desired traits
Inherited characteristics that are affected by more then one gene.
-one gene doing more then one thing
Mask the expression of other genes
Genes that affect many characteristics
Thomas hunt Morgan
Provided a deeper understanding of gender and the inheritance of some characteristics
Drosophila had 8 chromosomes
-females had 4 homologous pairs
-males had 3 homologous pairs
And the 4th set (the sex chromosomes) were not homologous
Morgan reasoned that..
Eye color of this fruit fly was a sex-linked trait
-carried on the X or Y chromosomes
Sex-linked traits are also found in humans
-Red-green color blindness
-male pattern baldness
-hemophilia :blood loss
X-linked (more common)
Y-linked (less common)
The first 22 pairs are called.....
The last pair is...
Sex-chromosomes & determine gender
-Genes located on the same chromosome
-tend to be transmitted together
-come in contact with each other
-genetic material is exchanged
-The distance between two genes along the same chromosome
Written as map units (separation) or cross-over frequencies
The further apart the higher frequency of cross-overs
Is the complete set of DNA in a person
The normal gene from Another cell is inserted into position on the diseased cell
The defective gene is modified chemically -to recode the genetic message