Ch 6 Perception Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Ch 6 Perception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 6 Perception Deck (43):
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Perception

The process of organizing and interpreting sensory info, enabling us o recognize meaningful objects and events

1

Selective attention

The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect

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Cocktail party effect

Ability to attend to only one voice among many

3

Inattentional blindness

Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

4

Change blindness

After a brief visual interruption you fail to notice changes in your visual field

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Change deafness

Failure to notice slight changes in our auditory field

6

Choice blindness

Failure to notice our selection of a particular stimulus has changed

7

Choice blindness blindness

Exhibiting denial (blindness) to falling victim to a hypothetical experiment

8

Pop out phenomenon

One stimulus stands out from other stimuli

9

Illusions

A perceptions, as of visual stimuli, that represent what is perceived in a way different from reality

10

Visual capture

The tendency for vision to dominate other senses

11

Gestalt

An organized whole, gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of info into meaningful wholes, top down processing

12

Figure ground

The organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground)

13

Grouping

The perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

14

Proximity

Group nearby objects (6 lines or 3 rows?)

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Similarity

Group figures that are alike

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Continuity

Smooth continuous patterns

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Connectedness

Perceived as one single unit because it is uniformed and linked

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Closure

Fill in gaps to create a complete whole object (invisible triangles)

19

Depth perception

The ability to see objects in 3D although the images that strike the retina are 2D; allows us to judge distance

20

Visual cliff

A laboratory device used for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

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Binocular cues

Depth cues that depend on the use of two eyes

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Retinal disparity (binocular cues)

The brain computes distance by comforting images from the two eyeballs-the greater the disparity (distance) between the two images the closer the object

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Convergence

The extent to which the eyes move inward when looking at an object the greater the inward strain, the closer the object

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Monocular cues

Depth cues, available to either eye alone

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Relative size

Judging distance, one that casts the smaller retinal image is perceived as further away

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Interposition

If one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer

27

Relative clarity

Because light from distant objects passes through more atmosphere, we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear objects

28

Texture gradient

Gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture to a fine, in distinct texture signals increasing distance

29

Relative height

We perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away because we perceive the lower part of a figure ground illustration as closer (figure)

30

Relative motion

As we move, objects that appear to move

31

Linear perspective

Parallel lines appear to converge with distance
more lines converge, greater perceived distance

32

Light and shadow

Nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes dimmer objects seem farther away

33

Phi phenomenon

An illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession
Traffic construction arrows

34

Stroboscopic movement

The brain will perceive continuous movement in rapid series of slightly varying images (still images)

35

Perceptual constancy

Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change

36

Perceptual adaptation

In vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

37

Context effect

The brain can work backwards in time to allow a later stimulus to determine how we perceive an earlier one

38

Perceptual set

A mental disposition to perceive one thing and not another

39

Human factors psychologists

A branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use

40

Extra sensory perception

The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input

41

Parapsychology

The study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis

42

Schema

Concept of framework that organizes and interprets info