Ch. 7 Antibiotics, Antifungals, and Antivirals Flashcards Preview

Principles of Pharmacology > Ch. 7 Antibiotics, Antifungals, and Antivirals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 7 Antibiotics, Antifungals, and Antivirals Deck (20):
1

Which of the following best describes the way in which immunizations act to enhance the function of the internal immune system?

A. Immunizations sterilize all microorganisms within the body, relieving the internal immune system of some of the responsibility for fighting disease
B. Immunizations create a physical barrier that prevents many disease-causing agents from entering the body and contacting the internal immune system
C. Immunizations stimulate the production of antibodies that make the internal immune system more readily able to fight disease
D. Immunizations generate high temperatures in the body that kill many microorganisms rather than forcing the internal immune system to do so.

B.

2

Which of the following is most similar in function to the external immune system?

A. A security gate that only allows authorized individuals to pass
B. A defensive wall around a city that protects against invading enemy armies
C. An electrified fence that injures anyone who attempts to cross it
D. A revolving door that allows individuals to enter and leave at will

B. A defensive wall around a city that protects against invading enemy armies

3

Why are patients in hospital and long-term care facilities in greater danger of developing infections than patients' home care settings?

A. Hospitals and care facilities do not have standard hand washing procedures
B. Hospitals and care facilities pass microorganisms through their ventilation systems
C. Hospitals and care facilities do not have facilities to isolate infected patients
D. Hospitals and care facilities contain large numbers of at-risk patients

D. Hospitals and care facilities contain large numbers of at-risk patients

4

Infections acquired by hospitalized patients are commonly referred to as _____________ infections.

A. Nosocomial
B. Socially borne
C. Aseptic
D. Staphylococcal

A. Nosocomial

5

Which of the following can you assume about an antibiotic with a name that ends in the suffix -static?

A. It kills microorganisms in the body
B. It increases the action of neutrophils
C. It prevents microorganisms from growing in the body
D. It inhibits cellular division of microorganisms

C. It prevents microorganisms from growing in the body

6

Which of the following does not describe one of the ways in which antibiotics kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms?

A. Antibiotics can interfere with cell wall production
B. Antibiotics can disintegrate the nuclear envelope
C. Antibiotics can inhibit protein synthesis
D. Antibiotics can mix up nucleic acid production

B. Antibiotics can disintegrate the nuclear envelope

7

Why is it preferable to prescribe a narrow-spectrum antibiotic in situations in which the disease-producing organism has been identified?

A. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are less likely to cause hypersensitivity than broad-spectrum antibiotics.
B. Microorganisms only respond to the specific antibiotics that are designed to kill them or inhibit their growth
C. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are unlikely to trigger anaphylaxis in the same way that broad-spectrum antibiotics do
D. Microorganisms can develop drug resistance and the odds of this resistance developing are reduced when narrow-spectrum antibiotics are used

D. Microorganisms can develop drug resistance and the odds of this resistance developing are reduced when narrow-spectrum antibiotics are used

8

Which of the following is an example of superinfection?

A. An infection that weakens the immune system to the point that the body is susceptible to two or more other infections
B. An exaggerated immune response to an antibiotic that causes a major skin rash
C. An infection of the GI tract caused by the use of a broad-spectrum antibiotic to treat a bladder infection
D. An antibiotic that does not affect a microorganism because that microorganism has developed a resistance to it

C. An infection of the GI tract caused by the use of a broad-spectrum antibiotic to treat a bladder infection

9

Which of the following most accurately describes what penicillinases are and what they do?

A. Penicillinases are antibody-like proteins that make the body immune to pathogens
B. Penicillinases are substances secreted by pathogens that render penicillin useless
C. Penicillinases are copies of penicillin molecules produced by cells to kill pathogens
D. Penicillinases are normal body cells that are killed or damaged by penicillin

B. Penicillinases are substances secreted by pathogens that render penicillin useless

10

Gretchen was recently prescribed penicillin for an infection. Unfortunately, neither Gretchen nor her doctor realized that she has a penicillin allergy, and shortly after taking the first dose she experienced difficulty breathing due to swelling of the throat. Gretchen's reaction to this medication is commonly known as

A. Penicillinase rejection
B. Anaphylaxis
C. Shock
D. Rheumatic fever

B. Anaphylaxis

11

When should antiviral drugs be administered in order to achieve peak effectiveness?

A. Before the virus is contracted
B. After the virus is contracted but before symptoms appear
C. After symptoms appear but before the patient has been ill for 24 hours
D. After the patient has been ill for 24 hours

B. After the virus is contracted but before symptoms appear

12

After washing your hands prior to medication administration, you should dry your hands with a paper towel, moving from the

A. Back of the hand to the front
B. Palm outward in both directions
C. Fingers to the wrists
D. Wrists to the fingers

C. Fingers to the wrists

13

Which part of the hand should you scrub first when preparing to administer medication?

A. The wrist
B. The front of the hand
C. The back of the hand
D. The fingers

D. The fingers

14

When administering medication to a patient in respiratory isolation, which of the following protective devices should you wear?

A. A gown, mask, and gloves
B. A mask and gloves
C. Gloves only
D. A mask only

D. A mask only

15

Why should you ask a patient in strict isolation to pour his or her own glass of water from the bedside pitcher if he or she is able?

A. In order to avoid direct contact with infectious agents
B. In order to avoid indirect contact with infectious agents
C. In order to avoid passing contaminants from your hands to the patient
D. In order to avoid the need to use and discard a pair of gloves

B. In order to avoid indirect contact with infectious agents

16

Which of the following is not one of the primary pathways by which healthcare workers are exposed to hepatitis B and HIV?

A. Mucous membranes
B. Nonintact skin
C. Ingestion
D. Accidental needlesticks

C. Ingestion

17

When should a healthcare worker follow universal precautions and why?

A. When coming in physical contact with any patient because all patients should be considered potentially infectious
B. When coming in physical contact with patients known to be infectious because of the inherent risks involved
C. When coming in contact with blood or bodily fluids of any patient because all patients should be considered potentially infectious
D. When coming in contact with blood or bodily fluids of patients known to be infectious because of the inherent risks involved

C. When coming in contact with blood or bodily fluids of any patient because all patients should be considered potentially infectious.

18

Which of the following types of precautions only calls for a patient to be isolated in a private room in certain situations?

A. Airborne precautions
B. Contact precautions
C. Droplet precautions
D. Standard precautions

D. Standard precautions

19

The physician orders amoxicillin 500 mg orally. Available is 125 mg/5 mL. How many mL of amoxicillin should you administer to your patient?

A. 20 mL
B. 15 mL
C. 8 mL
D. 4 mL

A. 20 mL

20

The physician orders erythromycin 450 mg orally. Available are 150 mg tablets. How many tablets should you give your patient?

A. 2.5 tablets
B. 3 tablets
C. 3.75 tablets
D. 4 tablets

B. 3 tablets