Ch 7 making decisions about drug and alcohol use Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 7 making decisions about drug and alcohol use Deck (60):
1

drug

substance that kills germs
affects body function or sturcture

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psychoactive drug

-any substance capable of altering feelings, moods, or perceptions
-sensory perceptions- thought processes behavior
-Impaired judgement- say/do things that are not atypical

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drug use

general term
describes drug-taking behavior

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Reasonable ingestion

6 examples:
ritual use
ceremonial use
utilitarian use
medical use
social use
private/personal use

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ritual use of drugs

purpose of sharing in a religious right

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ceremonial use of drugs

participating in a social gesture/act prescribed by custom or etiquette

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Utilitarian use drugs

practical or pragmatic purpose

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medical use of drugs

curing disease
controlling disease symptoms

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social use of drugs

enhancing communication/relationships in social situations

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private/personal use of drugs

purpose of pleasant changes of feelings, mood, or mind

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uses of drugs are reasonable if

defined, beneficial purpose
contributes to a person's well- being

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chemical dependency

two components:
drug use can cause problems
person continues to use

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drug misuse

inappropriate use of legal drugs intended to be medications

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dependence

need to continue using a drug

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psychological dependence

craving
emotional reasons
maintain a sense of well-being
habituation
tendency to relapse

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physiological dependence

body adapts to drugs if presence
cessation of drug use= withdrawal
withdrawal = consistent set of symptoms that appears after discontinuing drug use
addiction

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process of addiction

-exposure- feels good/replaces unpleasant feeling
-compulsion-repeated exposure despite negative consequences; avoid withdrawal
-loss of control- cannot control behavior; makes life worse

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process of dependence

-relief phase= escape
-increased use phase= take greater quantities
-preoccupation phase= constant concern, "normal behavior"
-dependency phase= physical symptoms= dependence addiction
-withdrawal phase= symptoms when abstinent

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types of drug users

experimenters
compulsive
floaters/chippers

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experimenters

initial stage of drug use
often use= recreational purposes

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compulsive users

insatiable (uncontrollable/constant) attraction to drugs
psychological dependence
inability to cope without using drugs

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4 principles of psychoactive drugs

-drugs, per se, ate not good or bad (it is how we use them that is good/bad)
-every drug has multiple effects
-both the size and the quality of a drug's effect depend on the amount the individual had taken
-the effect of any psychoactive drug depends on the individual's history and expectations

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why can't we stop drug abuse

supply and demand
substances will never disappear
we accept alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine

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why is drug abuse an important issue?

wide spread use form 1960's- present
drugs are more potent now than in the past
drugs are commonplace
endangers the future if a society
use/dealing= major factor of a society
risk of injury= greater

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people use drugs because

drugs make them feel good
they may relieve stress or tension
peer pressure
they may enhance religious or mystical experiences
they relieve pain and symptoms

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Predisposing factors

enhancing susceptibility/likelihood of beginning a behavior
EX: experimentation of adolescence, personal psychological characteristics, curiosity, cope with stress, societal changes and conflicts, heredity

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enabling factors

facilitate or make possible drug use
EX: availability, accessibility, social norms, drug effects, enabling

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reinforcing factiors

encourage beginning or repetition of a behavior
EX: pleasant experience, functional aspects, social/peer group influence and approval, advertising/media

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categories of drinkers

not all drivers if into one category
persons may display more than one patter in their lifetime
abstainers
social drinkers
problem drinkers

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abstainers

about 1/3 of US adults
reason for abstaining form alcohol can vary greatly

31

social drinkers

majority of drinkers
no serious consequences
cessation of alcohol use is not a problem

32

problem drinkers

continued use despite social work, psychological, or physical problems related to drinking
drink in dangerous situations
adverse effects from single bouts of drinking or effects of persistent alcohol use

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alcoholics

physical and psychological dependence impede ability to control drinking behavior

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causes of alcoholism

genetics, environmental

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genetics

adoption study was held
genetic predisposition does not mean predestination, but does increase likelihood

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environmental

cultural and group nobs
peer influences
expectancies about alcohol effec-ts
family influences
reinforcing anxiety-reducing effects

37

type 1 alcoholics

complex interplay between genetics and environmental influences
onset after age 25
drinking pattern= guilt and loss of control over drinking, can abstain for a time
personality is anxious, shy, pessimistic, novelty seeking, reward dependence

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type 2 alcoholics

high genetic connection between father and son
minor environmental association
sunsets before 25
aggressive behavior, quick to anger, frequent lights
frequent alcohol consumption

39

Jelinek's categories of alcoholism

the greek alphabet categories

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alpha alcoholism

psychological reliance on alcohol to relieve physical and psychological pain
problem drinking

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beta alcoholism

social dependence on alcohol
no dependence
no withdrawal symptoms
unhealthy drinking

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gamma alcoholism

emotional and psychological impairment
psychological and physical dependence
loss of control
withdrawal symptoms
most prevalent form of alcoholism in America

43

delta alcoholism

maintenance drinker
cannot abstain for even a day or two
they are impaired, but never freak during their waking hours

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epsilon alcoholism

binge drinker
loss of control over amount consumed
physical and psychological dependence

45

zeta alcoholism

moderate drinker who pecans abusive and violent
may not be addicted to alcohol

46

alcoholism: the disease

primary
chronic
disease
progressive
fatal
impaired control
advers consequences
denial

47

intoxication

dysfunctional and disruptive changes in physiological and psychologic functioning, mood, and cognitive processes resulting from the consumption of a psychoactive substances

48

cross-tolerance

transfer of tolerance form one drug to another within the same general category

49

process addictions

addictions in which people compulsively engage in behaviors such as gambling, shopping, gaming, or sexual activity to such an extreme degree that these addictions cause serious financial, emotional, social, and health problems similar to those resulting from drug and alcohol addictions

50

dose-response curve

the size of the effect of a drug on the body related to the amount of the drug administered

51

threshold dose

the least amount of a drug the have an observable effect on the body

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stimulants

psychoactive drugs that stimulate the function of the central nervous system

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narcolepsy

a sleep disorder in which a person had a recurrent, overwhelming, and uncontrollable desire to sleep

54

ADHD

above-normal rate of physical movement; often accompanied by an inability to concentrate on a specified task; also called hyperactivity

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hallucinogens

psychoactive drugs capable of producing hallucinations

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FDA Schedule 1

a list of drugs that have a high potential for abuse but no medical use

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metabolite

a breakdown product of a drug

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amotivational syndrome

behavioral pattern characterized by lack of interest in productive activities

59

narcotics

opiates; psychoactive drugs derived from the oriental poppy plant. relieve pain and induce sleep

60

shock

profound collapse of many vital body functions; evident during acute alcohol intoxication and other health emergencies