Ch. 7: Social Differentiation and Stratification Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 7: Social Differentiation and Stratification Deck (30):
1

Social Stratification

the ranking of people based on wealth, power and prestige - influences where we live, work, our hobbies and health

2

simple societies

people perform similar tasks and have similar amounts of money

3

Hunting-and-gathering societies

50 or fewer people hunt for their own food, no one works; usually nomadic people

4

simple horticultural societies

farm for food, stay in 1 place, build shelters, make tools

5

Advanced horticultural societies

societies w/ irrigation systems and other advanced farming practices, they know how to work with metals

6

Agrarian societies

more sophisticated technology than horticultural societies: weapons are improved, rich can develop armies, merchant class trades goods, wealth/power becomes concentrated

7

Industrial Societies

have the greatest division of labor, most wealth, highly specialized jobs that mass produce goods

8

mechanical solidarity

People do similar work but aren't dependent on one another. (Durkheim said this)

9

Organic Solidarity

integration of society that results from division of labor which causes reliance on others. (Durkheim)

10

open system

A system of stratification where it is possible to move up/down in class

11

class system

determined by wealth, vertical social mobility is possible

12

closed system

A system of stratification where rankings are permanent

13

caste system

social status is ascribed at birth, deals with family traditions and beliefs

14

estate system

like the caste system, status is based upon law/inheritance

15

slave system

There exists a basic belief in using ownership of humans for labor

16

social class

rankings based on a person's wealth

17

life chances

the opportunities a person has to improve his or her lifestyle

18

social status

the amount of honor and prestige a person receives from others and the position one occupies in the stratification system

19

an assessment of status based on one's income, education and occupation

socioeconomic status

20

having fewer resources than are required to meet basic necessities of life

Poverty

21

awareness that different classes exist in society

class consciousness

22

Top 1% own how much of privately held wealth?

35%

23

split labor market

a labor market in which some jobs afford upward mobility and others do not

24

1st estate

made up of nobility, wealthy families and powerful landowners - they had the right not to work, labor was beneath them

25

power

having authority and respect, makes decisions in groups in order to reach the group's goals: win an election change a law, revise banking system, teach children, etc.

26

Top-middle class

39% of middle class, likely to have college degrees/be white males, 30-49 years old

27

Satisfied middle

23% of middle class, generally white women between ages 18-29 or over 65, not uncommon to be unmarried

28

Anxious middle class

make basically the same as top-middle class, likely white males 30-40, less hopeful about children's lives, report less satisfaction with their lives

29

Struggling middle class

make $20,000 or less, more minorities than any other class but whites still make up 56%, likely to be unmarried with no college degree

30

social differentiation

The difference or variation of people based on selected social characteristic such as class, gender, race or age