Ch. 8: Depressive Disorders and Bipolar Disorders Flashcards Preview

Abnormal Psychology > Ch. 8: Depressive Disorders and Bipolar Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 8: Depressive Disorders and Bipolar Disorders Deck (36):
1

Define depression?

a low, sad state in which life seems dark and overwhelming

2

What are the 5 symptoms of depression?

Emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive and physical

3

Name the aspects of the emotional symptoms of depression?

sadness, increased crying, "empty"
Anhedonia: no pleasure

4

Name the aspects of the motivational symptoms of depression?

Paralysis of will (Beck), helpless, hopeless, must force self to work and eat

5

Name the aspects of the behavioral symptoms of depression?

less active and productive

6

Name the aspects of the cognitive symptoms of depression?

negative thoughts

7

Name the aspects of the physical symptoms of depression?

headaches, dizziness, constipation, general pain

8

What are the disorders related to depression?

MDD
PMDD
Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)
Disruptive Mood regulation
Substance-induced depressive disorder
Depression due to medical condition

9

What are the characteristics of MDD?

Daily depressed mood
Diminished pleasure
Weight gain/loss
Insomnia/hypersomnia
Fatigue
Feelings of worthlessness
No mania present

10

What is the coding procedure for depression?

Single vs. Recurrent episode
Severity
Specifiers (anxious distress, melancholic features, mood-congruent features, catatonia)

11

Describe persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)?

Depressed mood for more than 2 years (never w/o symptoms for 2 months)
-poor appetite/overeating
in/hyper somnia
low energy/self-esteem
poor concentration
hoplessness

12

Describe PMDD

Females experience depression symptoms and other related symptoms during the week prior to their period.

13

Describe disruptive mood regulation disorder.

Persistent depressive symptoms in conjunction with recurrent outbursts of severe temper, present for 12+ months
Dx not made before 6 yrs old or after 10 yrs old

14

Describe the biological view of depression.

Some inherit a predisposition, low levels of neurotransmitters or high cortisol. Malfunction of prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala. Or lower lymphocytes

15

Describe psychodynamic view of depression.

Introjection-feelings turned inward(ex: grief)

Symbolic - imagined loss (ex: unrelated event)

Anaclitic depression – depression in young children after separation from mother

Early loss may lead to depression later in life

16

Describe the behavioral view of depression.

Significant changes in rewards and punishments (ex: pro athlete)

Social rewards may be linked to depression

17

Describe the cognitive view of depression.

Maladaptive attitudes – role of early experiences
Cognitive triad – negative view of self, world, future
Errors in thinking- misinterpret events
Automatic thoughts – pop up (“I’m an idiot”)
Learned helplessness – think you have no control

18

Describe the sociocultural view of depression.

Depression is linked to decreased social support
Divorce
Separation
Family chaos
Social isolation

19

Describe the multicultural view of depression.

Cultural Background
Some common characteristics
Some differences among cultures

20

_______ are twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression

Women

21

What is artifact theory?

Men are as likely to be depressed but it is underdiagnosed

22

What's the hormone explanation?

Females experience frequent hormone changes

23

What is rumination?

repeatedly focus on feelings

24

What are the types of bipolar disorder?

Unipolar
Bipolar I and II
Cyclothymic
Substance-induced
Due to medical condition/unspecified

25

What are the symptoms of bipolar disorder?

Lows of depression and highs of mania

26

What are the symptoms of mania?

Emotional: feelings of joy, few have anger
Motivational: needs constant excitement
Behavioral: active and flamboyant
Cognitive: Poor judgment and planning
Physical: little sleep and high energy

27

Describe a manic episode.

1 wk. period of elevated mood and increased energy. 3 of the following needed:
Inflated self-esteem
Increased talkativeness
Flight of ideas/distracted
Increase in goal directed activity

28

Describe the coding for bipolar disorders.

Current episode (manic, depressed, hypomanic)
Severity (mild, moderate, with psychotic features, etc.)
Specifiers: With anxious distress, mixed features, melancholy, atypical features, mood-congruent)

29

Describe bipolar I

Presence of manic state and if current episode is hypomanic/depressive there is history of manic episode.

30

Describe bipolar II

Presence of major depressive episode, history of hypomanic episodes, but none of manic episodes

31

Describe cyclothymic disorder.

For at least 2 years, presence of hypomanic symptoms and minor depressive symptoms (do not meet criteria for MDD)
Symptoms do not remit for more than a 2 month period
No MDD in first year

32

What does biological theory say about the cause of bipolar?

Neurotransmitters: Theory that low serotonin and high norepinephrine together may be linked to mania.
Ion activity: Ions help transmit messages within neurons. Membrane defects in neurons

33

What about the brain structure could cause bipolar disorder?

Smaller basal ganglia and cerebellum
Lower volume of gray matter

34

What about the genetic makeup could cause bipolar disorder?

Family pedigree, twin, adoption studies
Molecular biology – genetic abnormalities on specific chromosomes linked to Bipolar Disorder

35

Describe unipolar depressive disorders.

Group of disorders marked by unipolar depression
19% of all adults experience an episode of severe unipolar depression in their lifetime
Women twice as likely to experience than men
86% recover
40% will have recurrence

36

Describe bipolar disorders.

Group of disorders marked by alternating periods of depression and mania
Much less common than unipolar depression