Flashcards in Ch. 8: Depressive Disorders and Bipolar Disorders Deck (36):
a low, sad state in which life seems dark and overwhelming
What are the 5 symptoms of depression?
Emotional, motivational, behavioral, cognitive and physical
Name the aspects of the emotional symptoms of depression?
sadness, increased crying, "empty"
Anhedonia: no pleasure
Name the aspects of the motivational symptoms of depression?
Paralysis of will (Beck), helpless, hopeless, must force self to work and eat
Name the aspects of the behavioral symptoms of depression?
less active and productive
Name the aspects of the cognitive symptoms of depression?
Name the aspects of the physical symptoms of depression?
headaches, dizziness, constipation, general pain
What are the disorders related to depression?
Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)
Disruptive Mood regulation
Substance-induced depressive disorder
Depression due to medical condition
What are the characteristics of MDD?
Daily depressed mood
Feelings of worthlessness
No mania present
What is the coding procedure for depression?
Single vs. Recurrent episode
Specifiers (anxious distress, melancholic features, mood-congruent features, catatonia)
Describe persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)?
Depressed mood for more than 2 years (never w/o symptoms for 2 months)
Females experience depression symptoms and other related symptoms during the week prior to their period.
Describe disruptive mood regulation disorder.
Persistent depressive symptoms in conjunction with recurrent outbursts of severe temper, present for 12+ months
Dx not made before 6 yrs old or after 10 yrs old
Describe the biological view of depression.
Some inherit a predisposition, low levels of neurotransmitters or high cortisol. Malfunction of prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala. Or lower lymphocytes
Describe psychodynamic view of depression.
Introjection-feelings turned inward(ex: grief)
Symbolic - imagined loss (ex: unrelated event)
Anaclitic depression – depression in young children after separation from mother
Early loss may lead to depression later in life
Describe the behavioral view of depression.
Significant changes in rewards and punishments (ex: pro athlete)
Social rewards may be linked to depression
Describe the cognitive view of depression.
Maladaptive attitudes – role of early experiences
Cognitive triad – negative view of self, world, future
Errors in thinking- misinterpret events
Automatic thoughts – pop up (“I’m an idiot”)
Learned helplessness – think you have no control
Describe the sociocultural view of depression.
Depression is linked to decreased social support
Describe the multicultural view of depression.
Some common characteristics
Some differences among cultures
_______ are twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression
What is artifact theory?
Men are as likely to be depressed but it is underdiagnosed
What's the hormone explanation?
Females experience frequent hormone changes
What is rumination?
repeatedly focus on feelings
What are the types of bipolar disorder?
Bipolar I and II
Due to medical condition/unspecified
What are the symptoms of bipolar disorder?
Lows of depression and highs of mania
What are the symptoms of mania?
Emotional: feelings of joy, few have anger
Motivational: needs constant excitement
Behavioral: active and flamboyant
Cognitive: Poor judgment and planning
Physical: little sleep and high energy
Describe a manic episode.
1 wk. period of elevated mood and increased energy. 3 of the following needed:
Flight of ideas/distracted
Increase in goal directed activity
Describe the coding for bipolar disorders.
Current episode (manic, depressed, hypomanic)
Severity (mild, moderate, with psychotic features, etc.)
Specifiers: With anxious distress, mixed features, melancholy, atypical features, mood-congruent)
Describe bipolar I
Presence of manic state and if current episode is hypomanic/depressive there is history of manic episode.
Describe bipolar II
Presence of major depressive episode, history of hypomanic episodes, but none of manic episodes
Describe cyclothymic disorder.
For at least 2 years, presence of hypomanic symptoms and minor depressive symptoms (do not meet criteria for MDD)
Symptoms do not remit for more than a 2 month period
No MDD in first year
What does biological theory say about the cause of bipolar?
Neurotransmitters: Theory that low serotonin and high norepinephrine together may be linked to mania.
Ion activity: Ions help transmit messages within neurons. Membrane defects in neurons
What about the brain structure could cause bipolar disorder?
Smaller basal ganglia and cerebellum
Lower volume of gray matter
What about the genetic makeup could cause bipolar disorder?
Family pedigree, twin, adoption studies
Molecular biology – genetic abnormalities on specific chromosomes linked to Bipolar Disorder
Describe unipolar depressive disorders.
Group of disorders marked by unipolar depression
19% of all adults experience an episode of severe unipolar depression in their lifetime
Women twice as likely to experience than men
40% will have recurrence