Ch 8: Enzymes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 8: Enzymes Deck (23):
1

Metabolism

Sum of all chemical reactions
Combination of catabolic and anabolic reactions

2

Catabolic reactions

Reactions tha breakdown molecules to release energy
Hydrolysis reactions

3

Anabolic reactions

Reactions that use energy to build complex molecules
Condensation reactions

4

Kinetic energy

The energy associated with motion
Ex. muscle activity, light, thermal energy, etc.

5

Potential energy

The energy of state or position
Ex. chemical bonds

6

Open system

Things can enter and exit the system
Ex. the cell's semipermeable membrane

7

Gibbs free energy

A way to quantify usable energy
The portion of the system's energy that can perform work
Energy of the product - energy of the reactant

8

Exergonic reaction

Energy is released as the reaction proceeds to form products
Spontaneous
- Gibbs

9

Endergonic reaction

Energy is absorbed as the reaction proceeds
Non-spontaneous
+ GIbbs

10

Activation energy

Energy needed for a reaction to take place
Reaction specific

11

Enzyme

A specific type of protein that speeds up the reaction by lowering the Ea
Control the speed of the reaction

12

Properties of enzymes

1. Made of proteins
2. Do not change the outcome of the reaction
3. Do not interfere with thermodynamics
4. Interfere with kinetics
5. Substances that can be recycled in the cell
6. Are specific

13

Inhibitor

Substance that makes enzymes non-functional

14

Competitive inhibition

Substrate and inhibitor are competing for the same active site
Molecule with higher concentration will win

15

Non-competitive inhibition

Inhibitor does not interact with the substrate directly
Inhibitor binds to the allosteric site, which closes the active site
Allosteric regulation

16

Sickle Cell Anemia

Genetic disease without a cure Crescent shaped blood cells
Not flexible
Pointy - get stuck in blood vessels
Inadequate oxygen to some parts of the body
Hemoglobin does not properly function
Glutamic acid is substituted by a valine

17

FH

Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Rare genetic disease caused by a nonfunctional protein
Disease in which the person has fewer LDL receptors than normal or none at all
People get heart attacks young

18

LDL

Low density lipoprotein
Goes to the steroid producing cells
Needs to be taken to the cell

19

PKU

Phenylketonuria
Rare autosomal recessive disease
Caused by a mutation in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxolase in the liver
Phenylalanine builds up because it is not converted to tyrosine
Can lead to mental deterioration

20

Synapse

Neuromuscular junctions
Presynaptic neuron releases neurotransmitters to posysynaptic neuron

21

Chronic Depression

Chemical imbalance due to a decrease in serotonin release
Medications affect the duration of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft

22

DIPF

Diisopropylphosphoflouridate
Muscle spasms

23

Ways to increase a reaction

Increase concentration gradient
Change medium
Introduce a catalyst
Change temperature