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Flashcards in Ch 8 learning Deck (48):
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Learning

A relatively permanent change in behavior s a result of experience

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Associative learning

Learning that certain events occur together

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Classical conditioning

Type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli

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Behaviorism

View that psychology should be an objective science that behavior w/o reference to mental processes

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Ivan Pavlov

Russian psychologist, salivating dog experiment

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Unconditioned stimulus (US)

A stimulus that automatically triggers a response

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Unconditioned response (UR)

The unlearned, naturally occurring response to the US

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Neutral stimulus (NS)

Stimulus that does not elicit any response

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Conditioned stimulus (CS)

Previously the NS that elicits the CR after being paired with the US

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Conditioned response (CR)

Learned response to CS

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Acquisition

Pairing of US and NS so the NS comes to elicit the CR

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Extinction

Diminishing of CR, occurs when US does not follow CS

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Spontaneous recovery

Reappearance after a pause of an extinguished CR

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Generalization

Tendency for stimuli similar to the CS to elicit similar response

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Discimination

Learned ability to distinguish between a CS and stimuli that do not signal an US

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John Garcia

Taste aversion

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Taste aversion

Only takes one time because so strong, classical conditioning with food

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Operant conditioning

Type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by punisher

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Respondent behavior

Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

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Operant behavior

Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

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B. F. Skinner

Behaviorism most influential and controversial figure, operant chamber (skinner box) study with rats

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Edward L. Thorndike

Law of effect, puzzle box

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Law of effect

Rewarded behavior is likely to recur

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Operant chamber

Cage where animals are placed to observe behavior

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Shaping

Operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

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Positive reinforcement

Increased behavior by presenting a positive stimulus

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Negative reinforcement

Increasing a behavior by taking away an aversive stimulus

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Primary reinforcers

One that satisfies a biological need

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Conditioned (secondary) reinforcers

One that has been paired with a primary reinforcer and has acquired value and reinforcement

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Positive punishment

Adding something aversive that decreases the likelihood the behavior will be repeated

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negative punishment

withdraw a desirable stimulus to decrease the likelihood the behavior will be repeated

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continuous reinforcement

every time the desired behavior occurs, it is reinforced
behavior learned quickly, but extinguishes quickly

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partial (intermittent) reinforcement

learning takes longer, but results are more stable

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fixed ratio schedules

specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement occurs
fixed: predictable
ratio: responses

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variable ratio schedules

reinforcement occurs after an unpredictable number of correct responses
variable:unpredictable, random
ratio: responses

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fixed interval schedules

reinforcement occurs only after a specific amount of time as elapsed
fixed:predictable
interval:time

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variable interval schedules

reinforcement occurs after an unpredictable amount of time elapses
Variable: unpredictable, random
interval:time

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punishment

when an unpleasant consequence decreases the likelihood the behavior will be repeated

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observational learning

learning by observing others aka social learning

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modeling

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

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mirror neurons

frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. the brains mirroring of anothers actionmay enable imitation and empathy. (feeling another persons injury)

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albert bandura

bobo doll experiment

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Successive approximation

Rewarding behavior as you get closer and closer to desired behavior
Baby steps

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Latent learning

Learning that occurs but is not apparent until incentive is given

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Cognitive map

Mental representations of layout of environment

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Intrinsic motivation

The desire to perform a behavior for its own sake

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Extrinsic motivation

The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments

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Prosocial behavior

Behavior learned