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Flashcards in Ch. 8 Neoplasia & Cancer Deck (104):
1

There are over ___ different types of ___ that can be categorized as cancer.

100; disease

2

Cancer is a __ ___ disease so we have issues with __ ___.

cellular based; cells themselves

3

Cancer is primarily seen in those who are older than:

55 or 65 years old

4

How many people lived with cancer in the US in 2014 out of 46 million?

14.5 million

5

It is predicted by the year 2024, there will be closer to __ - ___ million living with cancer.

19-20

6

An increase in the number of people diagnosed with cancer means that:

More people are diagnosed and are living and having a better quality of life

7

The mortality rate in 2013 was 1 out of every _.

4 persons

8

The cost of cancer is __ __, which doesn't only include __ ___, but __ __ __ and __ as well.

$206.3 billion; medical costs; lost work time/ productivity

9

When you look at cancer in the US in men and women, __ and __ cancer are the highest rate

prostate; breast

10

The highest rate of non-gender specific cancers include:

1. Lung
2. Bronchus
3. Colo-rectal
4. Urinary
5. Skin

11

We have seen increased survival rates for cancers such as ___ cancer which has increased to __% and ___ up to __%.

breast; 90%
leukemia; 51%

12

Prostate cancer, one of the biggest jumps from __ % all the way to __%. This has a lot to do with __ and ___ ___, which is our ___ level of prevention.

69; 99
screening; early detection ;
secondary

13

Cancer is a disorder of __ __ __ and __. When cells themselves are not __ or __ properly, and they are __ poorly, then that can lead to cancer.

altered cell differentiation;
growth;
dividing; growing;
differentiating

14

Neoplasia

New Growth

15

Dysplasia is where the cells are :

When these cells become totally ___ , we have that __.

a little more disorganized and a little more differentiated;

undifferentiated; neoplasm

16

When that neoplasm is confined to that area in which it has started growing it is called __ __.

in situ

17

When that neoplasm starts to invade other tissue, it is called an __ ___.

invasive neoplasm

18

With a neoplasm growth, it is __ and relatively __.

It just does __ __ __.

It does not __ to the __ from the body so there are no __ controls over __ __ and __.

unregulated; autonomous

its own thing.

listen; signaling; regulatory; cell growth; division

19

Anaplasia is a/an ___ __.

irreversible adaptation

20

Anaplasia is described as the loss of __ __ and can/cannot change into cancerous cells/ and tissue.

cell differentiation

can

21

Those undifferentiated cancer cells have a lot of differences including changes in __ and __, which is referred to as pleomorphism. Other changes include the __ or __ itself. They may be __ when they are doing rapid growth and division.

size; shape
nucleus; DNA
anuclear

22

Our __ and cells of our __ and __ __ aren't really able to divide and reproduce. Therefore, they __ become cancerous.

neurons; cardiac; skeletal muscle;
don't

23

Its those cells that __ __ or on a __ __ for the body to operate than can become cancerous. If we have those cells become __ and they continue to divide, they will increase in number.

reproduce quickly;
regular basis;
mutated

24

Cells that reproduce quickly/on a regular basis are:

1. Skin cells
2. Liver cells
3. Blood cells
4. Bone cells

25

__ cells called stem cells in our body may be triggered by abnormal processes to start producing large numbers of __ cells, which under normal circumstances are helpful b/c they allow for the __ of our __ __ or __ __.

Undifferentiated;
progenital;
regeneration ;
skin cells ;
liver cells;

26

When these progenitor cells have __ or __ or are __, they will produce a large number of __ ___.

mutations;
malfunctioning;
cancerous;
cancer cells

27

When we have a lot of cancer cells coming together to make a mass, we call that a __.

tumor

28

__ is another word for tumor.

Neoplasm

29

Neoplasms can be __, meaning __ and __.

malignant;
cancerous, deadly

30

-oma

benign tumor

31

-carcinoma

malignant tumor of the epithelial tissue origin.

32

-sarcoma

malignant tumor of connective tissue origin

33

We don't typically see cancers of __ or __ cells.

nerve/ muscle

34

benign tumor is very __ __. It may come to a __ or __ (___).
When it grows, it relatively __ in the __ it grows in.

slow growing
standstill; regress (shrink)
stays; area

35

In benign tumors, the cells are __ which keeps the cells together so there is no _ or __ to different sites in the body. The cells in the capsule are fairly __ __ and they represent that __ of the __ __ __.

incapsulated;
shedding/metastasis;
well differentiated;
cell; tissue of origin

36

A benign tumor is like an __ __ of that tissue that is __ __ __.

excessive growth
really not harmful

37

hemangioma is seen in a lot of __ __ (cherry hemangomoas) which are little __ __ seen in the __ __ which are just little __ __ of a __ __.

older adults; red dots; chest area; benign tumors; blood vessel

38

alipoma

(fat pad) - really just an overgrowth or benign tumor of fat tissue

39

Malignant cells grow very _ and __ very __.

rapidly; spread; quickly

40

Malignant cells themselves are very __. So they may __ __ ___ from the tissue they came from.
Do they have capsules?

undifferentiated; not look similar

no, that is why the cells can spread so easily, branch off, break off, and move through the lymphatic system or blood vessels to distant sites where they can seed and start a metastatic or secondary tumor in another location

41

malignant tumors can create:

their own blood supply = angiogenesis

42

The tumors steal __ and __ from areas that need the supply downstream. This can cause the tissue downstream to become __ and __ and then __.

blood; nutrients
ischemic, necrotic, die

43

Some tumors may exhibit or exude __ or __. They can destroy not only the __ __ but also __ __ when these __ and __ are in effect.

enzymes; toxins
tumor itself; normal tissue
enzymes; toxins

44

__-___ ___ is when the malignant tumors secrete __ that actually __ some of the body's own __ , which can lead to potential problems as well.

Para-neoplastic syndrome ;
hormones;
mimic;
hormones

45

The only way a benign tumor might be life threatening is if t was a __ tumor that was leading to __ ___ ___ that could cause a problem.

brain; increased intracranial pressure

46

There is no control of __ and no ability for __ in malignant tumors.
There is also no __ of __, no __ __

mitosis; apoptosis

organization; differentiation; contact inhibition

47

In malignant tumors, you are going to loose that __ __. The __ aren't normal, and there are altered __ __ on those __ that can affect how the body responds. They don't stick together like a __ tumor and can move to __ __.

contact inhibition

membranes; surface antigens; membranes

benign; distant sites

48

When you have a malignant tumor that grows and starts to spread, it's initially going to invade __ __ __ __ __. This is known as:

the tissue it is in ; local spread

49

Why type of cancer spread is this? It has grown past the basement membrane of that tissue to surrounding tissue.

Direct Extension

50

Seeding is when cancerous cells __ __ from that __ __ and move throughout the body in the __ or ____. Where the cells land they will seed in those areas. Once seeded they will be __ and grow leading to a __ or __ tumor.

break off; malignant tumor;
lymphatic; bloodstream
replicated; secondary; metastatic

51

Seeding process is called ___.

metastasis

52

increaesed tumor size ---> push on __ ___ -----> leads to __ ___ ----> leading to ____ -------> this will initiate the __ __ -----> lead to further ___ ___.

blood vessels; ischemia downstream; necrosis; inflammatory process; tissue damage

53

Hormones mimicking body hormones can affect: (6)

1.) water balance
2.) sodium balance
3.) calcium balance
4.) potassium balance
5.) nutritional balance
6.) metabolism

54

Cancerous cells can initiate __ and __ __ ____

inflammatory; immune response by itself

55

Depending on the location in the body, chronic inflammation in organ tissue can lead to __ __ __ and __.

reduced organ integrity; function

56

When you're looking at cell proliferation and differentiation it is under __ control. There are a lot of genes that control __ __. When we have neoplastic cells, they __ __ __ __.
They __ more than they should and become __ in ___.

genetic;
cell replication
ignore our genetic control
proliferate; autonomous; proliferation

57

Loss of differentiation- not looking like the cells they are supposed to look like =

anaplasia

58

5 general types of altered genes leading to cancer

1.) Mutator Genes
2.) Proto-Oncogenes
3.) Tumor Suppressing Genes
4.) Genes that control apoptosis
5.) Genes that regulate repair of DNA damage

59

Mutator genes: In our genome, when certain genes become mutated, they lead to other mutated cells to __ __ __.

develop more rapidly

60

A proto-oncogene is:

When proto-oncogenes become mutated, it is called an __, which is a __ __ gene that allows for __ __ proliferation.

required and normal for proliferation - its good for normal function

oncogene; cancer causing; autonomous, excessive

61

A mutation to the tumor suppressor genes will cause an:

inability to stop the tumor from growing; tumor grows more rapidly

62

If genes that control apoptosis aren't functioning, then:

apoptosis is not going to occur in cells that have damage, are abnormal, or have irreversible damage

63

Things that can damage DNA include:

radiation, chemicals, free radicals

64

When we have a mutation in a __ cell or __ cell ( cells ___ leading to __ cells), this mutation:

germ; stem
differentiating ; more
WILL BE PASSED TO FUTURE GENERATIONS OF CELLS

65

In the bone marrow there are cells responsible for WBC formation, and if there is a mutation that leads to an over production of what the stem cell is supposed to produce, we get ___

Leukemia

66

Carcinogens are cancer causing things in our __ that can cause damage to the body

environment

67

What are 3 types of carcinogens and examples for each?

1. radiation - UV or nuclear disasters (bombs dropped in hiroshima/nagasaki
2. Hormones - beef, milk, and other livestock products
3. Chemicals- asbestos, coal min workers, smokers

68

Common __ and __ put people at risk for certain types of cancer typically related to __ ___

diseases/disorders; chronic inflammation

69

___ leads to chronic inflammation of the esophagus, which can lead to __ __.

GERD; esophageal cancer

70

__ ___ seen in someone with __ __; person is at risk for developing __ cancer due to chronic inflammation of the __.

Chronic pancreatitis; chronic alcoholism; pancreatic; pancreas

71

Cell mediated immunity is responsible for:

finding abnormal cells or cancerous cells and destroying them

72

If someone is immune suppressed like someone with __ or treatment for something that causes a decreased immune response, they are at __ __ of cancer.

HIV

higher risk

73

In chronic inflammation, ___ are released leading to inflammatory responses as well as __ __ ____ .

cytokine ;
free radical production

74

Warning signs of Cancer (8)

1. Unusual bleeding or discharge
2. Change in bowel or bladder - our colorectal or GI Cancers
3. Change in wart or mole (will learn about the ABCDEs warning signs of skin)
4. Sores in mouth or skin that doesn't heal
5. Unexplained weight loss
6. Anemia and persistent fatigue (ketexia)
7. Cough or hoarseness- lung cancer indicator
8. Any lumps (breast or testes often painless) If painful, likely not cancer

75

There is often no __ until late stages of cancer.

pain

76

Tumor on blood vessels can __ blood vessels causing __ and __ occurring downstream. There can also be some:

erode; ulceration; necrosis

stark bleeding and hemorrhage

77

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome. What is that?

It is when a tumor is impeding on the vena cava thus affecting blood flow coming back to the heart. Life threatening! Prompt treatment

78

Systemic Effects of Malignant Tumors (6)

1. Weight loss and Cachexia
2. Anemia
3. Severe Fatigue
4. Effusions
5. Infection
6. Paraneoplastic Syndrome

79

Cachexia =

A syndrome of things that cause weight loss. Examples: anorexia, fatigue, no appetite, can occur due to impingement on digestive tract or due to release of cytokines leading to chronic inflammation resulting in all of these systemic symptoms

80

Anemia is the lack of __ leading to __ due to the lack of __. Can be from blood loss at __ __ or __ __ if the tumor is taking some of the nutrients the body needs.

RBCs, fatigue, oxygenation

tumor site; nutritional deficits

81

Severe fatigue a systemic effect of malignant tumors due to a combination of lack of __, __, __ that might come with it.

nutrients, anemia, stress

82

effusion =

an escape of fluid into a body cavity

83

With the inflammatory process, the inflammatory fluid can build up in certain body cavities. If tumor invades the peritoneal cavity, there may be fluid build up leading to __. If lung, fluid buildup in the lung can cause __ __.

ascites ;

oxygenation issues

84

Reasons for infection as a systemic effect of malignant tumors: (6)

1. anemic patient
2. poorly nourished
3. weight loss
4. cachexia
5. malaise
6. immune system function decreased (pt may be on radiation or chemotherapy)

85

When tumor cells release their own hormones to mimic other hormones in the body this is known as __ ___. It can affect how the __ __ or __ __ function or the effects that these organs have on the body.

paraneoplastic syndrome

thyroid gland; adrenal gland

86

the PSA diagnostic test is used to check for what?

prostate cancer

87

T part =

primary tumor; where we find tumor and where its located based on size

88

T is =

if very early cancer within that defined tissue = carcinoma in situ

89

If tumor starts to spread you would label T as :

T1 - T4 based on size; 1 is smallest

90

If tumor spreads to lymph nodes, N is based on:

how many lymph nodes the tumor is in.

91

If not in any regional lymph nodes, then N =

N

92

M =

Metastasis

93

MX

distant metastasis cannot be evaluated

94

M1 =

distant metastasis

95

M0=

no distant metastasis

96

_X =

any letter followed by an X means it was cannot be evaluated

97

The purpose of classifying using the TNM system is to figure out a person's ___ or how __ __ in a dx and prognosis.

staging; far along

98

prognosis =

someone's estimated survival rate

99

3 main goals of cancer treatment:

1. Curative
2. Control
3. Palliative

100

Curative is _ and _ _ a _.

1st ; best seeking; cure

101

Treatments of Cancer (6)

1. Chemotherapy
2. Radiation
3. Surgery
4. Immunotherapy
5. Hormones
6. Palliative Care

102

Radiation therapy targets:

rapidly diving cells and prevents them from dividing further

good and bad cells

103

Good cells that radiation therapy targets include: (4)

1. cells in bone marrow producing WBCs/RBCs
2. epithelial cells in mouth lining (lesions, ulcerations)
3. epithelial cells in GI tract (diarrhea, nausea)
4. Germ cells (leads to infertility in male/female)

104

Chemotherapy: same actions/side effect as radiation therapy.
What good things does chemo attack?

1. GI upset
2. Bone marrow depression
3. epithelial damage
4. sensitivity to sunlight (increased burning/damage to skin)
5. kidney damage
6. heart damage
7. liver damage
8. lung damage