Ch 8 Social Processes, Attitudes And Behaviors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 8 Social Processes, Attitudes And Behaviors Deck (71):
1

Max Weber

Important sociologist - coined social act - acts that person is conscious of and doing because others are there

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Micheangelo phenomenon

Interpersonal self - the influence others have on your ideal self
Intrapersonal self - my ideal self

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Social facilitation

Tendency to perform simple tasks better when others are around

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Yerkes Dodson law of social facilitation

Being in presence of others raises arousal significantly which enhances ability to perform tasks one is good at and hinders complex tasks

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Deindividuation

Social phenomenon - individual actions different in large groups due to anonymity

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Antinormative behavior

Behavior against the norm - deindividuation often causes this

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Bystander effect

No help given when others are present

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Social loafing

Tendency of individuals to put in less effort when in a group setting than individually

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Peer pressure

Social influence placed on ind by group of people other than self
Peers are those considered equal within social group

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Identity shift effect

When threatened by social rejection ind will conform but then feel internal conflict about it because behavior is outside of normal character. To eliminate internal conflict ind shifts identity to adopt standards of the group

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Cognitive dissonance

Simultaneous presence of two opposing thoughts or opinions

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Solomon Asch

Performed conformity experiment - card with three lines with one matching a second card of one line. When actors said incorrect line matched up to 1/3 participants chose wrong. When actors chose right less than 1% got it wrong.

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Social interaction

Ways two or more inds can shape each other’s behavior

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Group polarization

Tendency of groups to choose extremes compared to ind ideas and persuasions win group

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Choice shift

Same as group polarization but group polarization refers to ind shift while this refers to whole group
Formerly risky shift

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Groupthink

Desire for harmony leads group to poor decision.
Denies outside opinion

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Irving Janis

First research on groupthink in 1970s. Studied extreme stress affects on cohesiveness and groupthink. Examined 8 factors indicative of groupthink

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Illusion of invulnerability

Creation of optimism and encouragement of risk raking (groupthink)

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8 factors of groupthink (Janis)

Illusion of invulnerability
Collective rationalization
Illusion of morality
Excessive stereotyping
Pressure for conformity
Self censorship
Illusion of unanimity
Mindguards

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Collective rationalization

Ignoring warnings against idea of group (groupthink)

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Illusion of morality

Groupthink - belief group’s decisions are morally correct

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Excessive stereotyping

Groupthink - construction of stereotypes against outside opinions

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Pressure for conformity

In groupthink - pressure put on anyone in the group who expresses opinions against group viewing opinions as disloyal

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Self censorship

In groupthink - withholding of opposing views

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Illusion of unanimity

In groupthink - false sense of agreement win the group

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Mindguards

In groupthink- appointment of members to role of protecting against opposing views

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Culture

beliefs, behaviors, actions, and characteristics of a group or society of people. Learned by living within a society

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Assimilation

Process by which an ind’s or group’s behavior and culture begin to resemble that of another group. Usually not an even bend.
Assess completeness of assimilation by socioeconomic status, geographic distribution, language attainment, and intermarriage.
Melting pot

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Ethnic enclaves

Locations (usually neighborhoods) with a high concentration of one specific ethnicity

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Multiculturalism

Communities or societies containing multiple cultures.
Positive - contrasted to assimilation
Cultural mosaic

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Subcultures

Groups of people within a culture that distinguish themselves from the primary culture to which they belong. Symbolic attachment to things often distinguishes.

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Counterculture

Subculture that gravitates toward an identity that is at odds with primary culture and deliberately opposes prevailing social mores

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Socialization

Used to mean the process of developing, inheriting and spreading norms, customs, and beliefs. Inds gain necessary knowledge, skills, habits, and behaviors for inclusion.

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Cultural transmission or cultural learning

Manner in which a society socializes its members

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Cultural diffusion

Spread of norms, customs, and beliefs (especially new ones) throughout the culture

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Primary socialization

Occurs during childhood when we initially learn acceptable actions and attitudes in our society, primarily through observation of parents and other close adults

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Secondary socialization

Process of learning appropriate behavior within smaller sections of larger society. Outside home, learning rules of specific social environment

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Anticipatory socialization

Process by which a person prepares for future changes in occupations, living situations, or relationships

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Resocialization

Process in which someone discards old behaviors in favor of new ones to make a life change, may be negative or positive

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Norms

Societal rules that define the boundaries of acceptable behavior.

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Mores

Widely observed social norms

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Sanctions

Penalties for misconduct (violating norms or mores) - corporal punishment (inflicting pain or bodily injury) and capital punishment (execution)

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Taboo

Socially unacceptable, disgusting or reprehensible

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Folkways

Norms that refer to behavior that is considered polite in particular social interactions (shaking hands, etc)

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Deviance

Not necessarily negative. Just an act that goes against social norm, rule or expectation.
Functional theorists say this is good for culture, promoting change and showing what norms and boundaries are and promoting unity within society

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Stigma

Extreme dislike or disapproval of a person for a particular trait. Can spread to those associated with that person.

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Labeling theory

Labels given to people affect not only others’ view but ind’s view of self. Can lead to conformity or further deviance

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Differential association theory

Deviance can be learned through interaction with others. Intimate exposure to others who engage in deviant behavior lays groundwork for one to engage in that behavior.
Differential association refers to the extent to which someone is exposed to deviant vs normal behavior.

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Strain theory

Explains deviance as the natural reaction to the disconnect between social goals and social structure. Example is the American dream which may be unattainable and lead to deviance such as theft

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Conformity

Matching one’s attitude, beliefs and behavior to societal norms.
Also called majority influence.

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Normative conformity

Desire to fit into the group because of fear of rejection (Asch experiment)

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Internalization

Type of conformity- changing one’s behavior to fit with a group while also privately agreeing with the ideas of the group.
Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison experiment - prisoners and guards fell into their roles immediately

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Identification

Type of conformity - refers to outward acceptance of others’ ideas without personally taking on these ideas.

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Compliance

Change in behavior based on a direct request by someone who typically does not have any power or whom the person does not feel obligated to. Example is foot in the door technique

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Foot in the door technique

Example of gaining compliance - small request is made and after gaining compliance a larger request is made

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Door in the face technique

Technique of gaining compliance - opposite of foot in the door - large request is made first and then if denied a smaller request that appears more reasonable is made, often with the smaller request being the initial goal.

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Lowball technique

Method for gaining compliance - requestor will get an initial commitment from the person and then raise the cost of commitment. You commit to meetings each week but afterward discover these include a report and presentation about each meeting. (Wasn’t part of the deal)

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That’s not all technique

Method to gain compliance - someone is made an offer and then told the deal is even better than they thought before they had made their initial decision

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Obedience

In contrast to compliance, this is changing behavior in response to direct order from an authority figure. People are far more likely to obey than comply.
Most notable experiment by Stanley Milgram: participants “shocked” actors even to a seemingly painful degree when told to by a so-called authority figure

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Social cognition

Focuses on ways people think about others and how these ideas impact behavior

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Attitude

Expression of positive or negative feelings toward a person, thing, place or scenario. Develop from experiences with others who affect our opinions and behaviors

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Three components of attitude

Affective - the way a person feels toward something, the emotional component of attitude.
Behavioral - way a person acts with respect to something.
Cognitive - way an ind thinks about something

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Functional attitudes theory

States that attitudes serve four functions: knowledge, ego expression, adaptation and ego defense

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Knowledge function of functional attitudes theory

Provides consistency and stability: attitudes help provide organization to thoughts and experiences. Knowing attitudes of others helps predict their behavior

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Ego expressive function of functional attitudes theory

Attitudes allow us to communicate and solidify our self identity

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Adaptive function of functional attitudes theory

Idea that one will be accepted is socially acceptable attitudes are expressed

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Ego defensive function of functional attitudes theory

If Attitudes protect our self esteem or justify actions that we know are wrong

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Learning theory

Posits attitudes are developed through different forms of learning such classical or operant conditioning

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Elaboration likelihood model

Separates inds on a continuum based on their processing of persuasive information.
Scale from central route processing (deep thinkers who gain info and analyze and then decide) to peripheral route processing (people who look at the surface)

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Social cognitive theory

People learn how to behave and shape attitudes by observing behavior of others. Not learned through trial and error but by observation.

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Bandura’s triadic reciprocal causation

Social cognitive theory - consists of behavior, environment and personal factors which all influence each other