Ch. 8 Upper Limb Bones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 8 Upper Limb Bones Deck (61):
1

Humerus

- longest and largest bone of the free part of the upper limb
- proximal ball-shaped head articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula
- distal end have capitulum (articulate head of radius) and trochlea (articulate with ulna) (flatter; medial and lateral epicondyle: flex wrist and interphalangeal)
- radial fossa and coronoid fossa (flex forearm)
- olecranon fossa (tip of elbow) and radial groove on posterior view

2

Ulna

- longer of two forearm bones, bigger proximal- smaller distal
- located medial to the radius
- contains:
olecranon- tip of elbow, articulates with olecranon fossa
coronoid process- part of humerus articulates coronoid fossa
trochlear notch- where trochlear of humerus articulates
styloid process- articulates with first 3 carpal bones
head- distal end
ulnar tuberosity
radial notch- articulates with head of radius

3

Proximal Row of Carpal

scaphoid, lunate, triquetum and pisiform
- schaphoid most commonly fractured

4

Distal Row of Carpals

trapezium, trapeizoid, capitate, hamate
(She Is Too Pretty)
(Try To Catch Her)

5

Carpal Tunnel

space between carpal bones and flexor retinaculum
- median nerve passes through carpal tunnel

6

Appendicular Skeleton

- primary function is movement
- includes bones of the upper and lower limbs
- girdles attach the limbs to the axial skeleton

7

Capitulum and Radial Fossa

is a rounded knob on the lateral aspect of the humerus that articulates with the head of the radius
anterior depression above the capitulum that articulates with the head of the radius when the forearm is flexed

8

Trochlea and Cornoid Fossa

located medial to the capitulum that articulates with the ulna
anterior depression that receives the coronoid process of the ulna when forearm is flexed

9

Radius

- proximal end has head that articulates with the capitulum of the humerus and radial notch of ulna
- neck
- radial tuberosity, attachment of biceps brachii
- styloid process: most common fracture in adults older than 50

10

Carpals in proximal row (lateral to medial)

scaphoid
lunate
triquetrum
pisiform
- articulate with distal end of the ulna nad radius to form the wrist joint

11

Carpals in Distal Row (lateral to medial)

trapezium
trapezoid
capitate: largest carpal bone, head articulates with lunate
hamate

12

Metacarpal Bone

proximal base: articulate with distal row of carpal bones to form capometacarpol joints
intermediate shaft
distal head: articulate with the proximal phalanges to form (knuckles) metacarpophalangeal joints
- numbered I-V: thumb to medial

13

Phalanges

- make up distal region of hand
- 14 phalanges in five digits of each hand
- proximal base, intermediate shaft, and distal head
pollex has two phalanges called proximal and distal phalanges
2-5 have proximal, middle, and distal phalanges
- articulate with metacarpal bones
- interphalangeal joints inbetween phalanges

14

Hinge Joint (elbow)

- between trochlea and trochlear notch and between capitulum and head of radius
- reinforced on medial and lateral side by collateral ligaments
- posterior cushion formed by olecranon bursa
- held in place by annular ligament
- pivot action

15

Radiocarpal Joint

- three proximal carpal bones: scaphoid, lunate and triquentrum
- interface with the distal surface of the radius to form the wrist joint
- contains ulnar collateral ligament to provide flexion, extension, adduction, adduction, and NO rotation

16

Metacarpophalangeal and Intercarpol Joints

- condyloid joint and hinge joints
- anterior palmar ligament and two collateral ligaments
- no support posteriorly

17

Biceps Brachii

- long head: tubercle above glenoid cavity of scapula (supraglenoid tubercle) short head: coracoid process of scapula
- radial tuberosity of radius and bicipital aponeurosis
- flexes forearm at elbow joint, supinates forearm at radioulnar joints, and flexes arm at shoulder joint
- musculocutaneous nerve

18

Briahialis

- distal, anterior surface of humerus
- ulnar tuberosity and coronoid process of ulna
- flexes forearm at elbow joint
- musculocutaneous and radial nerves

19

Brachioradialsis

- lateral border of distal end of humerus
- superior to styloid process of radius
- flexes forearm at elbow joint; supinates and pronates forearm at radioulnar joints to neutral position
- radial nerve

20

Triceps Brachii

Long head: infraglenoid tubercle, a projection inferior to glenoid cavity of scapula
lateral head: post. surface of humerus above radial groove
medial head: entire posterior surface of humerus inferior to a groove for the radial nerve
- olecranon of ulna
- extends forearm at elbow joint and extends arm at shoulder joint
- radial nerve

21

Anconeus

- lateral epicondyle of humerus
- olecranon and superior portion of shaft of ulna
- extends forearm at elbow joint
- radial nerve

22

Pronator Teres

- medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna
- midlateral surface of radius
- pronates forearm at radioulnar joints and weakly flexes forearm at elbow joint
- median nerve

23

Pronator Quadratus

- distal portion of shaft of ulna
- distal portion of shaft of radius
- pronates forearm at radioulnar joint
- median nerve

24

Supinator

- lateral epicondyle of humerus and ridge near radial notch of ulna
- lateral surface of proximal one-third of radius
- supinates forearm at radioulnar joints
- deep radial nerve

25

Flexor Carpi Radialid

- medial epicondyle of humerus
- second and third metacarpals
- flexes and abducts hand at wrist joint
- median nerve

26

Flexor Retinaculum

- tendon sheath that surrounds and holds adjacent skeletal elements
- hold tendon close to the bone and prevent it from bowstringing outward

27

Extensor Retinaculum

- superficial to the dorsal surface of the carpal bones
- extensor tendons of the wrist and digits pass between the bones and the extensor retinaculum

28

Palmaris Longus

- medial epicondyle of humerus
- flexor retinaculum and plamar aponeurosis
- weakly flexes hand at wrist joint
- median nerve

29

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

- medial epicondyle of humerus and superior prosterior border of ulna
- pisiform, hamate, and base of fifth metacarpal
- flexes and adducts hand at wrist joint
- ulnar nerve

30

FLexor Digitorium Superficialis

- medial epicondyle of humerus, cornoid process of ulna, and a ridge along lateral margin of anterior surface of radius
- middle phalanx of each finger
- flexes middle phalanx of each finger at proximal interphalangeal joint, proximal phalanx of each finger at metacarpophalangeal joint, and hand at wrist joint
- median nerve

31

Flexor Pollicis Logus

- anterior surface of radius and interosseous membrane
- base of distal phalanx of thumb
- flexes distal phalanx of thumb at interphalangeal joint
- median nerve

32

Flexor Digitorium Profundus

- anterior medial surface of body of ulna
- base of distal phalanx of each finger
- flexes distal and middle phalanges of each finger at interphalangeal joints, proximal phalanx of each finger at metacarpolphalangeal joint, and hand at wrist joint

33

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

- lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
- second metacarpol
- extends and adducts hand at wrist joint

34

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

- lateral epicondyle of humerus
- third metacarpal
- extends and abducts hand at wrist joint

35

Extensor Digitorum

- lateral epicondyle of humerus
- distal and middle phalanges of each finger
- extends distal and middle phalanges of each finger at interphalangeal joints, proximal phalanx of each finger at metacarpophalangeal joint, and hand at wrist joint

36

Extensor Digiti Minimi

- lateral epicondyle of humerus
- tendon of extensor digitorum on fifth phalanx
- extends proximal phalanx of little finger at metacarpophalangeal joint and hand at wrist joint

37

Extensor Carp Ulnaris

- lateral epicondyle of humerus and prosterios border of ulna
- fifth metacarpal
- extends and adducts hand at wrist joint

38

Abductor Pollicis Longus

- posterior surface of middle of radius and ulna and interosseous membrane
- first metacarpal
- abducts and extends thumb at carpometacarpal joint and abducts hand at wrist joint

39

Extensor Pollicis Brevis

- posterior surface of middle of radius and interosseous membrane
- base of proximal phalanx of thumb
- extends proximal phalanx of thumb at metacarpophalngeal joint, first metacarpal of thumb at carpometacarpal joint, and hand at wrist joint

40

Extensor Pollicis Longus

- posterior surface of middle of ulna and interosseous membrane
- base of distal phalanx of thumb
- extends distal phalanx of thumb at interphalangeal joint, first metacarpal joint, and abducts hand at wrist joint

41

Extensor Indicus

- posterior surface of ulna
- tendon of extensor digitorum of index finger
- extends distal and middle phalanges of index finger at IT joints, proximal phalanx of index finger at metacarpophalangeal joint, and hand at wrist joint

42

Thenar Group

forms thick, fleshy mass at the base of the thumb

43

Abducutor Pollicis Brevis

- flexor retinaculum, scaphoid, and trapezium
- lateral side of proximal phalanx of thumb
- abducts at carpometacarpal joint

44

Opponens Pollicis

- flexor retinaculum and trapezium
- lateral side of metacarpal I
- moves thumb across palm to meet any finger (opposition) at the carpometacarpal joint

45

Flexor Pollicis Brevis

- flexor retinaculum, trapezium, capitate, and trapezoid
- lateral side of proximal phalanx of thumb
- flexes thumb at carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints

46

Adductor Pollicis

- oblique head: capitate and metacarpals 2 and 3
- transverse head: metacarpal 3
- medial side of proximal phalanx of thumb by a tendon containing sesamoid bone

47

Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis

- flexor retinaculum and hamate
- medial side of proximal phalanx of little finger
- flexes little finger at carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints

48

Abductor Digiti Minimi

- pisiform and tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris
- medial side of proximal phalanx of little finger
- abducts and flexes little finger at MP joint

49

Opponens Digiti Minimi

- flexor retinaculum and hamate
- medial side of metacarpal 5
- moves little finger across the palm to meet thumb at the carpometacarpal joint

50

Lumbricals

- lateral side of tendons and flexor digitorum profundus of each finger
- lateral sides of tendons of extensor digitorium on proximal phalanges of each finger
- flex each finger at MP joints and extend each finger at IP joints

51

Palmar Interossei

- adduct each finger at MP joints, flex each finger at MP joint and extend each finger at IP joints (except middle finger)

52

Dorsal Interossei

- adjacent sides of metacarpals
- proximal phalanx of each finger
- adduct fingers 2-4 at MP joints, flex fingers 2-4 at MP joints, extend each finger at IT joints

53

Structure of Spinal Cord

- sensory posterior root (carry information to spinal cord) and motor anterior root project laterally from the spinal cord, converge to form a mixed nerve, called spinal nerve trunk
- spinal nerve trunk runs for a short distance before branching into two large branches and a variable series of smaller branches
- each large branch is named ramus (anterior and posterior)

54

Posterior dorsal ramus

- somatic branch that run in the muscoskeletal system
- serves the deep muscles and skin of the posterior surface of the trunk

55

White VS Grey Matter

- grey is centre of reflex arc
- white matter is spinal nerves

56

Anterior Ventral Ramus

- upper and lower limb muscles and skin of the lateral and anterior region of trunk

57

Plexuses

- axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerves except for T2-12, do not go directly to the body structures they supply
- joining various numbers of axons called plexus
- 5 types
- groups of nerves emerge from the plexuses

58

Brachial Plexus

C5-T1
- supply innverations to muscles of upper limb
- axillary nerve: deltoid, teres minor
- median nerve: thenar muscles, pronator quadratus, lateral two lumbricals, pronator teres (phalanges 1-3)
- musculocutanneous nerve: biceps brachii, brachialis, coracobrachialis
- radial nerve: Brachioradialsis, triceps brachii, supinator, anconeus
- ulnar nerve: hypothenar muscles, medial two lumbricals, dorsal and palmar interossei (pinky)

59

Arterial Blood Supply

arch of arota, brachiocephalic trunk, right subclavian, right axillary, right brachial,
- right radial, right superficial deeper palmar arch, right common palmar digital, right proper palmar digits
- right ulnar, right palmar arch, right palmar metacarpal

60

Superficial Venous Blood Flow (hand to heart)

heart, superior vena cava, subclavian, axillary vein, cephalic and basilic vein, median cubital, palmar venus arch (plexus), palmar digital

61

Deep Venous Blood Flow (hand to heart)

heart, superior vena cave, subclavian vein, brachial vein, radial vein and ulnar vein, palmar venus arches, venous blood flow from lower limb (palmar digital)