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Flashcards in ch 8 vocab Deck (118)
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1

all neural tissue outside the CNS

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

2

centers, nuclei, tracts, ganglia, and nerves involved in the unconscious regulation of visceral functions; includes components of the CNS and PNS

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

3

a cell in neural tissues specialized for intercellular communication by
1) changes in membrane potential
2) synaptic connections

neurons

4

supporting cells in the neural tissue of the CNS and PNS

neuroglia

5

a sensory process of a neuron

dendrite

6

elongated extension of a neuron that carries info to other cells

axon

7

the ribosomes, golgi, RE reticulum, and mitochondria of the cytoplasm of a typical nerve cell

nissl bodies

8

in a multipolar neuron, the thickened portion of the neural cell body where an action potential begins

axon hillock

9

site of communication between a nerve cell and some other cell; if the other cel is not a neuron, the term neurofactor junction is often used

synapse

10

a neuron with many dendrites and a single axon; the typical form of a motor neuron

multipolar neuron

11

a sensory neuron whose cell body lies in a dorsal root ganglion or a sensory ganglion of a cranial nerve

unipolar neuron

12

an association neuron; neurons inside the CNS that are interposed between sensory and motor neurons

interneurons

13

the awareness of the positions of bones, joints, and muscles

proprioception

14

sensory receptors monitoring the functions and status of internal organs and systems

internal receptors

15

1 of the glial cells in the CNS; responsible for the blood-brain barrier

astrocytes

16

CNS glial cells responsible for maintaining cellular organization in the gray matter and providing a myelin sheath in areas of white matter

oligodendrocytes

17

insulating sheath around an axon consisting of multiple layers of glial plasma membrane; significantly increasing conduction rate along the axon

myelin

18

the formation of myelin

myelination

19

area between adjacent glial cells where the myelin covering of an axon is incomplete

Node of Ranvier

20

regions inside the CNS that are dominated by myelinated axons

white matter

21

areas in the CNS dominated by neuron bodies, glial cells, and unmyelinated axons

gray matter

22

phagocytic, glial cells in the CNS, derived from the monocytes of the blood

microglia

23

1 of the large, muscular pumping chambers of the heart that discharges blood in to the pulmonary or systemic circuit

ventricle

24

layer of cells lining the ventricles and central canal of the CNS

ependyma

25

the loss of the myelin sheath of an axon, usually due to chemical or physical damage to Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes

demyelination

26

a collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS

ganglia

27

an area where gray matter is found at the surface of the CNS

neural cortex

28

a bundle of axons inside the CNS

tracts

29

the separation of opposite charges; requires a barrier that prevents ion migration

potential difference

30

the potential difference, in millivolts, measured across the plasma membrane; a potential difference that results from the uneven distribution of positive and negative ions across a plasma membrane

membrane potential