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Flashcards in ch 8 vocab Deck (118):
1

all neural tissue outside the CNS

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

2

centers, nuclei, tracts, ganglia, and nerves involved in the unconscious regulation of visceral functions; includes components of the CNS and PNS

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

3

a cell in neural tissues specialized for intercellular communication by
1) changes in membrane potential
2) synaptic connections

neurons

4

supporting cells in the neural tissue of the CNS and PNS

neuroglia

5

a sensory process of a neuron

dendrite

6

elongated extension of a neuron that carries info to other cells

axon

7

the ribosomes, golgi, RE reticulum, and mitochondria of the cytoplasm of a typical nerve cell

nissl bodies

8

in a multipolar neuron, the thickened portion of the neural cell body where an action potential begins

axon hillock

9

site of communication between a nerve cell and some other cell; if the other cel is not a neuron, the term neurofactor junction is often used

synapse

10

a neuron with many dendrites and a single axon; the typical form of a motor neuron

multipolar neuron

11

a sensory neuron whose cell body lies in a dorsal root ganglion or a sensory ganglion of a cranial nerve

unipolar neuron

12

an association neuron; neurons inside the CNS that are interposed between sensory and motor neurons

interneurons

13

the awareness of the positions of bones, joints, and muscles

proprioception

14

sensory receptors monitoring the functions and status of internal organs and systems

internal receptors

15

1 of the glial cells in the CNS; responsible for the blood-brain barrier

astrocytes

16

CNS glial cells responsible for maintaining cellular organization in the gray matter and providing a myelin sheath in areas of white matter

oligodendrocytes

17

insulating sheath around an axon consisting of multiple layers of glial plasma membrane; significantly increasing conduction rate along the axon

myelin

18

the formation of myelin

myelination

19

area between adjacent glial cells where the myelin covering of an axon is incomplete

Node of Ranvier

20

regions inside the CNS that are dominated by myelinated axons

white matter

21

areas in the CNS dominated by neuron bodies, glial cells, and unmyelinated axons

gray matter

22

phagocytic, glial cells in the CNS, derived from the monocytes of the blood

microglia

23

1 of the large, muscular pumping chambers of the heart that discharges blood in to the pulmonary or systemic circuit

ventricle

24

layer of cells lining the ventricles and central canal of the CNS

ependyma

25

the loss of the myelin sheath of an axon, usually due to chemical or physical damage to Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes

demyelination

26

a collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS

ganglia

27

an area where gray matter is found at the surface of the CNS

neural cortex

28

a bundle of axons inside the CNS

tracts

29

the separation of opposite charges; requires a barrier that prevents ion migration

potential difference

30

the potential difference, in millivolts, measured across the plasma membrane; a potential difference that results from the uneven distribution of positive and negative ions across a plasma membrane

membrane potential

31

the membrane potential of a normal cell under homeostatic conditions

resting potetial

32

a change in the membrane potential that moves it from a negative value toward 0mV

depolarization

33

a propagated change in the membrane potential of excitable cells, initiated by a change in the membrane permeability to sodium ions

action potential

34

membranes that conduct action potentials, characteristics of muscle and nerve cells

excitable moments

35

an action potential in a neuron cell membrane

nerve impulse

36

the membrane potential at which an action potential begins

threshold

37

movement of the membrane potential away from 1 mV values and toward the resting potential

repolarization

38

period between the initiation of an action potential and the restoration of the normal resting potential; during this period, the membrane will not respond normally to stimulation

refractory period

39

chemical compound released by 1 neuron to affect the membrane potential of another

neurotransmitter

40

a synapse between a motor neuron and a peripheral effector, such as a muscle, gland cell, or fat cell

neuroeffector junction

41

the synaptic surface where neurotransmitter release occurs

presynaptic membrane

42

chemical neurotransmitter in the brain and PNS; dominant neurotransmitter in the PNS, released at neuromuscular junctions and synapses of the parasympathetic division

acetylcholine (ACh)

43

synapse where the presynaptic membrane releases ACh on stimulation

cholinergic synapse

44

a neurotransmitter in the PNS and CNS and a hormone secreted by the adrenal (suprarenal) medulla; also called nonadrenaline

norepinephrine

45

an axon terminal that releases norepinephrine when stimulated

adrenergic

46

an important neurotransmitter in the CNS gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-a neurotransmitter of the CNS whose effects are usually inhibitory

dopamine

47

in neural tissue, the spread of excitation from 1 neuron to many neurons; an organizational pattern common along sensory pathways of the CNS

divergence

48

in the nervous system, the term indicates that the axons from several neurons innervate a single neuron; most common along motor pathways

convergence

49

3 membranes that surround the surfaces of the CNS-the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater

meninges

50

the middle meninges that encloses the CSF and protects the CNS

arachnoid

51

outermost component of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord

dura mater

52

space between the spinal dura mater and the walls of the vertebral foramen; contains blood vessels and adipose tissue; a frequent site of injection for regional anesthesia

epidural space

53

brain and spinal cord

central nervous system (CNS)

54

meningeal space containing CSF; the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater

subarachnoid

55

innermost layer of the meninges that surround the CNS

pia mater

56

PNS ganglion containing the cell bodies of sensory neurons

dorsal root ganglion

57

pertaining to the anterior surface

ventral

58

1 of 31 pairs o peripheral nerves that originate on the spinal cord from anterior and posterior roots

spinal nerve

59

a tract carrying info from the spinal cord to the brain

ascending tract

60

largest portion of the brain, composed of the cerebral hemispheres; includes the cerebral cortex, cerebral nuclei, and the white matter

cerebrum

61

expanded portions of the cerebrum covered in neural cortex

cerebral hemispheres

62

a division of the brain that includes the pineal gland, thalamus, and hypothalamus

diencephalon

63

the walls of the diencephalon

thalamus

64

the floor of the diencephalon; region of the brain containing centers involved with the unconscious regulation of visceral functions, emotions, drives, and the coordination of neural and endocrine functions

hypothalamus

65

1 of 4 primary tissue types; a layer of cells that forms a superficia covering or an internal lining of a body cavity or vessel

epithelium

66

the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata (excludes the cerebrum, diencephalon, and cerebellum)

brain stem

67

the mesencephalon

midbrain

68

the portion of the brain anterior to the cerebellum

pons

69

the most caudal of the brain regions

medulla obongata

70

region of the brain posterior to the pons, containing the cerebellar hemispheres; adjusts voluntary and involuntary motor activities

cerebellum

71

fluid bathing the internal and external surfaces of the CNS; secreted by the choroid plexus

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

72

the vascular complex in the roof of the 3rd and 4th ventricles in the brain, responsible for CSF production

choroid plexus

73

a network or braid

plexus

74

an extensive area of neural cortex covering the surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres

cerebral cortex

75

a prominent fold or ridge of neural cortex on the surfaces of the cerebral hemispheres

gyrus

76

a groove or furrow

sulcus

77

an elongate groove or opening

fissures

78

groove in the surface of a cerebral hemisphere, between the primary sensory and primary motor areas of the cortex

central sulcus

79

the primary motor cortex of a cerebral hemisphere, anterior to the central sulcus

precentral gyrus

80

cortical areas of the cerebrum responsible for integration of sensory inputs and or motor commands

association areas

81

bundle of axons linking centers in the left and right cerebral hemispheres

corpus callosum

82

the speech center of the brain, normally located on the neural cortex of the left cerebral hemisphere

Broca's area

83

inability to seak

aphasia

84

graphic record of the electrical activities of th brain

electroencephalogram (EEG)

85

temporary or permanent loss

amnesia

86

a mass of gray mater in the CNS

cerebral nuclei

87

nuclei of the cerebrum that are important in the subconscious control of skeletal muscle activity

basal nuclei

88

group of nuclei and centers in the cerebrum and diencephalon that are involved with emotional states, memories, and behavioral drives

limbic system

89

the edge of the cornea, marked by the transition from the corneal epithelium to the ocular conjuctiva

limbus

90

nuclei in the hypothalamus concerned with feeding reflexes and behaviors; a component of the limbic system

mamillary bodies

91

neural tissue in the posterior portion of the roof of the diencephalon, responsible for the secretion of melatonin

pineal gland

92

a little mound; in the brain, used to refer to 1 of the thinkenings in the roof of the midbrain; the superior ____ are associated with the visual system, and the inferior ____ with the auditory system

colliculi

93

diffuse network of gray matter that extends the entire length of the brainstem

reticular formation

94

progressive motor disorder due to degeneration of the cerebral nuclei

Parkinson's disease

95

poorly localized centers in the reticular formation of the medulla of the brain; includes cardioacceleratory, cardioinhibitory, and vasomotor centers

cardiovascular centers

96

center in the medulla oblongata whose stimulation produces vasoconstriction and an elevation in peripheral resistance

vasomotor center

97

12 peripheral nerves originating at the brain

cranial nerves

98

nerve that carries signals from the eye to the optic chiasm

optic nerves (NII)

99

crossing point of the optic nerves

optic chiasm

100

tract over which nerve impulses from the retina are transmitted between the optic chiasm and the thalamus

optic tract

101

cranial nerve III, which controls the extrinsic oculomotor muscles other than the superior oblique and the lateral rectus

oculomotor nerve

102

a pulley

trochlea

103

cranial nerve V, responsible for providing sensory info from the lower portions of the face, including the upper and lower jaws, and delivering motor commands to the muscles of mastication

trigeminal nerve

104

spiral portion of the bony labyrinth of the internal ear that surrounds the organ of hearing

cochlea

105

cranial nerve IX

glossopharyngeal

106

1 of 31 pairs of peripheral nerves that originate on the spinal cord from anterior and posterior roots

spinal nerve

107

network formed by branches of spinal nerves C5-T1 en route to innervating the upper limb

brachial plexus

108

a rapid, automatic response to a stimulus

reflex

109

the receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, and effector involved in a particular reflex; may include interneurons

reflex arc

110

a reflex in which the sensory afferent neuron synapses directly on the motor efferent neuron

monosynaptic reflex

111

a reflex with interneurons interposed between the sensory fiber and the motor neurons

polysynaptic reflex

112

a reflex contractions of the flexor muscles of a limb in response to an unpleasant stimulus

flexor reflex

113

visceral motor neuron inside the CNS whose output controls 1 or more ganglionic motor neurons in the PNS

preganglionic neuron

114

an autonomic neuron whose cell body is in a peripheral ganglion and whose axon is a post ganglionic fiber

ganglionic neurons

115

the axon of a ganglionic neuron

postganglionic fiber

116

1 of the 2 divisions of the ANS; generally responsible for activities that conserve energy and lower the metabolic rate; AKA craniosacral division

parasympathetic division

117

pertaining to the kidneys

renal

118

core of the adrenal gland; a modified sympathetic ganglion that secretes hormones into the blood following sympathetic activation; also called suprarenal medulla

adrenal medulla