Ch 9-11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 9-11 Deck (118):
1

two types of cells

somatic
gametes

2

somatic cells

normal body cells
46 chromosomes
23 pairs

3

gametes

egg and sperm

4

types of somatic cells

autosomes
sex chromosomes

5

autosomes

pairs 1-22
gender independent traits

6

sex chromosomes

23rd pair
female XX
male XY

7

which sex chromosome carries SRY gene

male XY

8

diplod

cell with 2 copies of every chromosome for the species

9

haploid

cell with 1 copy of every chromosome for that species

gametes

10

homologous pairs/chromosomes

pairs that contain the same traits in the same location

11

alleles

alternate forms of genes

12

karotype

pictural image of an individuals chromosomes taken at metaphase

13

euchromatin

genes that can be read
nucelosomes

14

heterochrimatin

silent genes
cells dont need the gene
methyl group

15

binary fission

1 parent cell makes 2 daughter cells

16

chromatin

loosley condensed form of DNA

form taken when not dividing

17

chromatin condensation

DNA wraps itself up to take 6 feet of DNA into every cell

18

chromosomes

highly compacted and condensed DNA

form when cells are dividing

19

p arm

shorter arm of chromosome

20

q arm

longer arm of chromsome

21

sister chromatids

2 make one chromsomes

22

centromere

where 2 sister chromatids connect

23

purpose of cell division

growth
repair

24

asexual division

simplest form
binary fission
bacteria
elongated cell splits into 2

25

cell cycle

interphase
G1
S phase
G2
Mitosis

26

cell cycel diagram

see notes

27

internal signals of cell cycles

cyclin
cyclin dependent kinase

28

cyclin

family of proteins
inhibit cell cycle

29

cyclin dependent kinase

sends signal to divide in G1

catalyzes phosphorylation of other proteins to start mitosis

30

interphase

everything except cell division
90%

31

G1 phase of cell cycle

cell recieves signal to divide

enlarges and copies organelles

gather components to copy DNA

32

synthesis (S) phase

replicates DNA
make copy
semiconservativr replication- 2 halves act as templates

33

DNA replication

unwinding and separation

reconstruction and elongation

proofreading and error correction

34

unwinding and replication of dna replication

orgin of replication (starting point)
helicase unwinds the DNA

35

reconstruction and elongation of dna replication

use enzymes to make matching base pairs

36

proofreading and error correction of dna replication

make sure the base pairs are correct

37

helicase

unwinds the DNA
breaks H-bonds

38

primase

enzyme that puts several RNA nucleotides together in a primer

starts the base pairing connection

39

primer

5 prime to 3 prime

40

DNA polymerase 3

matches complementary base pairs
5 prime to 3 prime

41

DNA ligass

seal any breaks in the sugar phosphate backbone

42

dna polymerase 1

new primer starts new base pairing

43

gyrase (topoismeras)

prevents over coiling

44

okazaki fragments

small segments of DNA made by polymerase 3

45

leading strand

5 to 3 prime

46

lagging strand

3 to 5 prime

47

where helicase binds

orgin of replication

48

G2 phase of cell cycle

cell gathers and synthesizes proteins needed for cell division

spindle fibers

49

kinetchore

plated strucure on chromosomes that spindle fibers connect to

50

daughter chromsomes

sister chromatids separated during mitosis
identical

51

M phase of cell cycle

mitosis
cytokinesis

52

mitosis

nuclear division
creates 1 large cell with 2 nuclei

53

diagram mitosis

see notes

54

cytokinesis

cytoplasmic division
creates 2 new cells each with 1 nucleus

55

animal cytokinesis

actin pulls apart
creates cleavage furrow

56

plant cytokinesis

cell plat forms = cell wall
stay connected

57

cancer

disease of the cell cycle
uncontrolled cell division

58

abnormal cell characteristics

abnormal shape or number of chromsomes

lack differentiation

lacks contact inhibition

forms tumors

metastasis

59

differentiation

stem cell forms another stem cell and a differentiated cell to do other functions

60

contact inhibition

should stop once in contact with other cells

cancer will keep growing once in contact

61

tumor

mass of cells uncontrollably dividing

62

benign tumor

incapsulated
only 1 place

63

malignant tumor

traveled

64

metastasis

cancer in more than 1 body system, organ

travels

65

quality control mechanisms of cells

apoptosis
G1 checkpoint
G2 checkpoint
M checkpoint
Telomeres

66

apoptosis

programmed cell death
cell suicide

67

G1 checkpoint

cell will check DNA integrity
-base pairing
-number of chromsomes present

68

G2 checkpoint

checks DNA replication
sends back for do over if incorrect

69

M checkpoint

checks sister chromatid alignment and spindle fiber attachment

70

telomeres

non coding repeating nucleotide sequence at the ends of every chromosome

everytime DNA is copied it loses parts of their telomeres

only copied about 70 times untile telomeres are completely gone

71

major functions of meiosis

reduce chromosome number
shuffle chromosomes for genetic diversity

72

germ cells

go through meiosis

73

process of meiosis

see notes

74

independent assortment

orientation of chromosomes during metaphase

8million combos

75

occurance of mitosis

more common

76

occurance of meiosis

happens occasionally

77

oogensis

meiosis to produce egg cells

creates polar bodies

78

spermatogenesis

meiosis to produce sperm cells

79

non disfunction

failure of chromosomes to separate during anaphase

anaphase 1: all 4 cells have wrong number of chromosomes

anaphase 2: only 2 gametes are correct

80

trisomy

n + 1
extra chromsome
down syndrome

81

monosomy

n - 1
loss of chromosome

82

allele

alternative form of a trait
one or two letter code

83

genotype

specific 2 alleles a person possesses
BB
bb
Bb

84

phenotype

physical expression of genotype
brown or blue eyes

85

homozygous

2 alleles are the same
BB
bb

86

heterozygous

2 alleles are not the same
Bb

87

dominant

allele expressed when only one is present
BB
Bb

88

recessive

expressed when 2 are present
bb

89

true breeding/pure bred

homozygous for every trait
AAbbccDDee

90

mendels law of segregation

individuals possess 2 alleles for every trait (diploid)

alleles separste in gamete formation (meiosis)

gametes posses 1 alleles for every trait (haploid)

fertilization produce zygotes that possess 2 alleles (diploid)

91

mendels law of independent assortment

foil two genotypes
BbFf = BF, Bf, bF, bf

92

punnett squares

determine parent genotypes
determine gametes
create square
determine probability or phenotype

93

test cross

way to determine the unkown genotype of a dominant phenotype

94

incomplete dominance

heterozygous expresses an intermediate phenotype

red flower + white flower = pink flower

95

co dominance

2 or more dominant alleles
both will show

96

multiple allele traits

more than 2 forms of the trait in the gene pool

97

ABO blood typing system

combo of co dominance and multiple allele trait

alleles determine the antigen present on RBC

98

antigen

any molecule that stimulates an immune response

99

antibody

specific to each antigen

make antibodies for the antigens you dont possess

100

genotype for A blood

IAIA
IAi

101

genotypr for B blood

IBIB
IBi

102

genotype for AB blood

IAIB

103

genotype for O blood

ii

104

rhesus factor (Rh)

positive- possess antigen
RR or Rr

negstive- no antigen
rr

105

polygenic inheritance

many genes (sets of alleles) determine phenotype

height
eye color
skin color
hair color

106

environment and the phenotype

outside factors affect phenotype

107

pleiotropy

one gene with many phenotypes

108

sex linked inheritance

gender dependent traits

109

linked traits

genes located near each other
chromosome always separate together
BbHh = BH and bh

110

epistasis

one trait hides the expression of a different trait

111

pedigree key

family trees using symbols

112

know symbols of pedigrees

see notes

113

autosomal recessive

noneffecred parents with effected kids

male to female ratio is somewhat even

shaded are recessive
blanks have one dominant

114

autosomal dominant

affected parent(s) with uneffected child

shaded have one dominant
blank are recessive

115

x linked recessive

uneffected moms that affect all boys

shaded have Xa recessive
blank have XA or Xa

116

x linked dominant

effected dads with a girls affected

shaded are XA dominant
blank are XA or Xa

117

gametes formed from mitosis

2

118

gametes formed from meiosis

4