Ch 9- enhancing your cardiovascular health Flashcards Preview

Health Science > Ch 9- enhancing your cardiovascular health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 9- enhancing your cardiovascular health Deck (38):
1

impact of CVD in the US

directly related to 33.6% of deaths
cause of 1 out of 2 deaths
good news:
between 1997 and 2007, death rates form CVD declined 28.7%
due to canging lifestyles and medical advances in diagnosis and treatment

2

cardiovascular

cardio= heart
vascular= blood vessels

3

arteries

away

4

veins

towards

5

capillaries

smalles extension of the vascular system

6

the heart

4-chambered
upper chambers atria
lower chambers- ventricles
septum= divided left and right sides

7

heart attack

also known as:
myocardial infraction
diseased coronary arteries

8

blood

average adult= 5 quarts of blood
functions:
transportation- nutrients/O/hormones/meds/infections
regulation of water content
maintain appropriate pH balance of body fluids
regulation of body temp
prevention of blood loss- clot or coagulate (scab)
protection against toxins and micro organisms

9

cardiovascular risk factors

increase likelihood it could occur
attributes a person has or will be exposed to

10

cardiovascular risk factors you can't change:

could encourage you to make a serious commitment to the risk factors you can change
increasing age
-heart disease develops gradually
-rare in 20s and 30s
-81% of heart attack= age 65+
male gender
-higher risk than females before 55
-hormone- estrogen= protection
-after menopause= similar rates
heredity
-genetic predisposition
-as a group african americans are at an increased risk of high blood pressure

11

cardiovascular risk factors you can change

cigarette smoking and second hand smoke
-smokers have a 2-4 times higher risk of heart attack
-second hand smoke= 30% risk of heart disease death
-former smokers (pack or less a day)= within 3 years same risk as a nonsmoker
physical inactivity
-regular aerobic exercise= beneficial
30 minutes/day 5 days a week= decrease heart disease risk
blood cholesterol
high blood pressure
-hypertension "silent killer"
-systolic= highest pressure
-diastolic= lowest pressure
diabetes mellitus
-increased risk of heart and blood vessel diseases
-65% of diabetics die of heart disease
-abnormal cholesterol and blood fat
obesity and overweight
-abdominal fat= strain on heart
-influences blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels
-obesity= trigger diabetes in predisposed people

12

metabolic syndrome

3 or more of the following risk factors:
-abdominal obesity
-abnormal blood lipids
-elevated blood pressure
-elevated fasting glucose
-2X as likely to develop heart disease

13

contributing cardiovascular risk factors

individual response to stress
sex hormones
oral contraceptives
alcohol (too much)

14

6 forms of cardiovascular disease

coronary heart disease
hypertension
stroke
congenital heart disease
rheumatic heart disease
congestive heart failure

15

coronary heart disease

-damage to vessels that supply blood to the heart
-atherosclerosis- plaque build up on inner-walls of arteries
-angina pectoris- coronary arteries become narrowed- reduced oxygen supply
-arrhythmia

16

hypertension

high blood pressure

17

stroke

cerebrovascular accidents- results from blood vessel damage to the brain

18

congenital heart disease

defect present at birth

19

rheumatic heart disease

final stage in a series of complications started by strep throat

20

congestive heart failure

heart lacks strength to circulate blood normally throughout the body

21

thorax

The chest; the portion of the torso above the diaphragm and with the rib cage

22

coronary arteries

vessels that supply oxygenated blood to heart muscle tissue

23

cardiac muscle

specialized muscle tissue that forms the middle (muscular) layer of the heart wall

24

low-density lipoprotein

the type of lipoprotein that transports the largest amount of cholesterol in the bloodstream; high levels of LDL are related to heart disease

25

High-density lipoprotein

the type of lipoprotein that transports cholesterol for the bloodstream to the liver, where it is eventually removed from the body; high levels of HDL are related to reduction in heart disease

26

calcium channel blockers

drugs that prevent sartorial spasms; used in the control of blood pressure and the long-tern management of angina pectoris

27

beta blockers

drugs that reduce the workload of the heart, which decreases occurrence of angina pectoris and helps control blood pressure

28

coronary artery bypass surgery

surgical procedure designed to improve blood flow to the heart by providing new routes for blood to take around points of blockage

29

percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

any of a group of procedures used to treat patients suffering form an obstruction in an artery; typically involves inserting a slender, balloon tipped tube into an artery of the heart

30

stent

a device inserted inside a coronary artery during a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) tok provident the artery form narrowing at that site

31

systolic pressure

blood pressure against blood vessels walls when the heart contracts

32

diastolic pressure

blood pressure against blood vessel walls when the heart relaxes

33

retinal hemorrhage

uncontrolled bleeding from arteries within the eye's retina

34

salt sensitivity

term used to describe people who's bodies overreact to the presences of sodium by retaining fluid and thus experience an increase in blood pressure

35

cerebrovascular occlusions

blockages to arteries supplying blood to the cerebral blood vessels

36

computed axial tomogram (CT) scan

an x-ray procedure designed to illustrate structures within the body that would not normally be seen through conventional x-ray procedures

37

magnetic resonance imaging scan

an imaging procedure that uses a powerful magnet to generate images of body tissues

38

peripheral artery disease

(PAD) atherosclerotic blockages that occur in the arteries that supply blood to the legs and arms