Ch 9 Memory Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Ch 9 Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 9 Memory Deck (50):
0

Memory

The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

1

Flashbulb memory

A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

2

Encoding

The processing of information into the memory system- for example by extracting meaning

3

Storage

The retention of encoded info over time

4

Retrieval

The process of getting info out of memory storage

5

Sensory memory

The immediate, very brief recording of sensory info in the memory system

6

Short term memory

Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, (such as the 7 digits of a phone number while dialing) before the info is stored or forgotten

7

Long term memory

Relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

8

Working memory

Newer understanding of a short term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual spatial information, and from info retrieved from long term memory

9

Automatic processing

Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well learned info such as word meanings

10

Effortful processing

Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

11

Rehearsal

The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

12

Spacing effect

The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention thanks achieved through mass study or practice

13

Serial position effect

Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

14

Visual encoding

The encoding of picture images

15

Acoustic encoding

The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

16

Semantic encoding

The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

17

Imagery

Mental pictures; a powerful aid to Effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

18

Mnemonic devices

Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

19

Chunking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

20

Hierarchies

Organizing a few broad concepts by dividing and subdividing them into narrower concepts and facts

21

Self reference effect

Finding personal meaning

22

Rosy retrospection

People tend to recall events more positively than they evaluated them at the time

23

Method of loci

Associates to be remembered items with familiar locations

24

Iconic memory

Visual sensory memory that lasts 1-2 seconds

25

Echoic memory

Auditory sensory memory that lasts 3-4 seconds

26

George miller

"Rule of 7" (7+/- 2) short term memory

27

Long term potentiation (LTP)

An increase in a synapses firing potential after a brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

28

Amnesia

Loss of memory

29

Implicit memory

Memory of learned skills that does not require conscious skills, habits processed by the cerebellum

30

Explicit memory

Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"

31

Hippocampus

Neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage

32

Cerebellum

Brain region extending out from the rear of brain stem, plays key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning

33

Recognition

Measure of memory in which the person need only identify, items previously learned multiple choice test

34

Recall

Measure of memory in which the person must retrieve info learned earlier, as fill-in-the-blank test

35

Relearning

Memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material a second time

36

Retrieval cues

Help access stored memory

37

Priming

Activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

38

"Memoryless memory"

Memory without explicit remembering

39

Déjà by

Eerie sense that "I've experienced this before" cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience

40

Mood-congruent memory

Tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with knees current good or bad mood

41

Ebbinghaus

Learned more lists of nonsense syllables and measured how much he retained when relearning each list, famous forgetting curves indicates that much of what we learn we may indeed forget quickly

42

Proactive interference

Disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info

43

Retroactive interference

Disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old info

44

Repression

In psychoanalytic theory the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

45

Loftus

A psychologists known specifically for her work with memory

46

Misinformation effect

Incorporating misleading info into ones memory of an event * heart of false memories

47

Source amnesia (misattribution)

Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, or imagined

48

Context effect

Putting yourself back in the context where you experienced something can prime your memory retrieval

49

State-dependent memory

Better ability of remembering info when you are in the same physiological state you were in when you originally encoded it