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Flashcards in Ch1 Deck (55):
1

What is based off of people's preferences, habit, heritage, social, convenience, associations, emotions, values, body weight/image, nutrition/health benefits?

Food choice

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V: Foods that have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis at effective levels.

Functional foods

3

V: Nonnutrient compounds found in plants. Some phytochemicals have biological activity in the body.

Phytochemicals

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V: Plant

Phyto

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V: The capacity to do work.

Energy. The energy in food is chemical energy. The body can convert this chemical energy to mechanical, electrical, or heat energy.

6

V: Chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body's tissues. Nutrients may also reduce the risks of some diseases.

Nutrients

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Nutrient composition of foods-

What the food is made of and the nutrients it contains

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Nutrient composition of the body-

A chemical analysis of the body that shows what materials it is made of

9

Chemical composition of nutrients-

what the nutrients are made of. Minerals, water, carbs, lipids, proteins, vitamins, hydrogen, carbon, etc...

10

Essential Nutrients-

Nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make enough required. About 40 are essential.

11

Energy yielding nutrients

The nutrients that break down to yield energy the body can use: Carbs, fat, protein.

12

V: a measure of heat energy. Every provided by food and beverages.

Calories. kilocalories (1000 calories=1 kilocalorie). 1kg of water=1 degree cel.

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V: A measure of the energy a food provides relative to the weight of the food. (kcal per gram)

Energy density

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V: Organic, essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health.

Vitamins

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V: Inorganic elements. Some minerals are essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health.

Minerals

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V: The complete set of genetic material (DNA) in an organism or a cell. The study of genomes is called genomics.

Genome

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V: The science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes (nutrigenomics) and how genes affect the interactions between diet and disease (nutrigenetics)

Nutritional genomics

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V: A personal account of an experience or event; not reliable scientific info

anecdote

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V: an experiment in which the subjects do not know whether they are members of the experimental group or the control group

blind experiment

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V: a group of individuals similar in all possible respects to the experimental group except for the treatment. Ideally, the control group receives a placebo while the experimental group receives a real treatment.

Control group

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V: the simultaneous increase, decrease, or change in two variables.

Correlation

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V: an experiment when the subjects nor researcher know which group is the experimental and which is the controlled

double-blind experiment

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V: group of similar individuals who is not the control group, but similar to.

experimental group

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V: an unproven statement that tentatively explains the relationships between two or more variables

hypothesis

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V: A process in which a panel of scientists rigorously evaluates a research study to ensure that the scientific method was followed.

peer review

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V: repeating an experiment and getting the same results

replication

27

V: Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)- A set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the US and Canada. They include

Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
Adequate Intakes (AL)
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)

28

V: the lowest continuing intake of a nutrient that will maintain a specified criterion of adequacy.

Requirement

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V: the average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the healthy people of a given age and gender group

EAR- Estimated average Requirement

30

V: the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people; a goal for dietary intake by individuals.

RDA- Recommended Dietary Allowance

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V: the maximum daily amount of nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects.

Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

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V: the average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion; a value used as a guide of nutrient intake when an RDA cannot be determined

Adequate Intake (AI)

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V: inadequate; a nutrient amount that fails to meet the body's needs and eventually results in deficiency symptoms.

Deficient

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V: the average dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance and good health in a person of a given age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity.

Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)

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V: ranges of intakes for the energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

Acceptable Micronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)

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Macro ranges:

45-65%- kcals from carbs
20-35%- kcals from fat
10-35%- kcals from protein

37

V: any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients

malnutrition

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V: deficient every or nutrients

undernutrition

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V: excess energy or nutrients

overnutrition

40

V: a comprehensive analysis of a person's nutrition status that uses health, socioeconomic, drug, and diet histories; anthropometric measurements; physical exams, and lab tests.

Nutrition assessment

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What are anthropometric measurements?

height and weight

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What do physical exams consist of?

hair, eyes, skin, posture, tongue, & finger nails

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Lab tests test:

Blood & urine

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V: Anthropes

Human

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V: Metric

measuring

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V: out in the open and easy to observe

overt - ouvir=to open

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V: a nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient

Primary deficiency

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V; a nutrient def caused by something other than inadequate intake such as a disease condition or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates use, hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient.

secondary deficiency

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V: a deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared.

subclinical deficiency

50

V: hidden, as if under covers.

cover - couvir=to cover

51

V: a national public health initiative under the jurisdiction of the USDH and Human Services (DHHS) that id's the most significant preventable threats to health and focuses efforts toward eliminating them.

Healthy People Program for National Health Goals

52

V: a condition or behavior associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but not proved to be casual. Leading risk factors for chronic diseases include obesity, smoking, high bp, cholesterol, physically inac, and a diet high in sat fat in low veggies, fruits, and whole grains.

risk factor

53

RF in persist

RFs that persist over time. Early intervention is best. ex: being diagnosed with something at an early age.

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RF in cluster

ex: fat, blood pressure, cholesterol, etc...

55

RF in perspective

looking at what is healthy/unhealthy for you