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Flashcards in CH.1 Deck (19):
1

Tribute

demanded from subject people (comparable to taxes in Europe) brought many goods to Tenochtitlán

2

Matriarchy

power inherited through female lines of authority

3

Animism

the natural world was suffused with spiritual power

4

Patriarchy

property and social identity descended in male family lines

5

Primogeniture

fathers bestowed all their land on their eldest son, forced many younger children to join the ranks of roaming poor

6

Peasants

farmworkers who lived in small villages surrounded by fields farmed cooperatively by different families

7

Republic

states that had no prince or king but instead were governed by merchant coalitions

8

Civic Humanism

praised public virtue and service to the state and in time profoundly influenced European and American conceptions of government

9

Renaissance

the arts and learning associated with this cultural transformation from 1300 to 1450

10

Guilds

artisan organizations that regulated trades

11

Christianity

grew out of Jewish monotheism (the belief in one god), held that Jesus Christ was himself divine

12

Heresies

satan was constantly challenging God by tempting people to sin. Doctrines spread it by being inconstant with the teachings of the church - were seen as tools of Satan

13

Islam

the religion whose followers considered Muhammad to by God's last prophet

14

Crusades

to reverse the Muslim advance in Europe and win back the holy lands where Christ had lived

15

Protestant Reformation

the controversy between the Roman Catholic Church and radical reformers like Luther and Calvin spread throughout much of Western Europe

16

Counter Reformation

the Catholic church sought change from within and created new monastic and missionary orders

17

Trans-Saharan Trade

The primary avenue of trade for West Africans passed through Ghana, Mali, and Songhai empires

18

Reconquista

the campaign by Spanish catholics to drive Muslim Arabs from the European mainland

19

Predestination

God chooses certain people for salvation before they are born and condemns the rest to eternal damnation