Flashcards in Ch.1 /Ch.2 Deck (76):
(1842-1910) Helped create psychology. (first psychologist). (scientific approach that allowed him to as age old questions about the nature of human beings)
scientific study of mind and behaviour
private inner experience, perceptions, thoughts.
observable actions of humans and animals.
allows scientists to scan brain
psychological processes that promote the welfare and reproduction of those processes
subjective sense of self?
perceptions, thoughts, memories, feelings
allows for recognition, see predators before they see us and avoid walking into traffic.
what we are doing and why. to avoid re-doing problems.
react to life or death events quickly. Form strong social bonds
people behaving automatically. "saying thanks to a machine"
schools of thought
structuralists (break down mind into components) and Functionalists (how mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environment)
believed in nativism (428-347 BC)
plato's student who believed in empiricism. (348-322 BC)
knowledge is innate or inborn (nature)
a tabula rasa
knowledge is acquired through experiences (nurture)
how mental activity can be coordinated with physical behavior. mind and behaviour.
(1596-1650) physiology/ philosophy. body and soul are fundamentally different (problem of dualism though) Mind influences brain through pineal gland
(1588-1679) mind is what brain does.
Franz Joseph Gall
(1758-1828) Phreneology (mental abilities ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness are socialized in diff. regions of the brain). Brain and mind are linked.
(1794-1867) removed parts of brain to analyze phrenology theory (brain has elements/ specific functions in each)
(1824-80) worked with patient who damaged left side of brain (couldnt speak) ***flourens and broca started mental processes
Helmholts (1821-94) and Wundt (1832-1920)
physiology. James was attracted to. "H" studied nerve impulses (stimulus/ reaction time). "W" studied structuralism. W, first labratory. W psychology should study conciouscness.
biological processes in human body
sensory input from environment
amount of time to respond to stimulus
persons subjective experience of the world and the mind
analysis of basic elements that constitute the mind. introspection.
subjective observation of ones own experience
purpose mental processes serve enabling people to adapt to environment
darwins theory dominant features of organism are passed on.
loss of cognitive motor functions, resulting from emotional experiences
mind that operates outside of conscious awareness
freuds approach to understanding human behaviour (shaping, feeling, thoughts, behaviours)
brings unconscious material into conscious awareness.
positive potential to human beings. understanding human nature
objectively observable behavior
action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus.
consequences of behaviour that determine if behaviour will occur again
errors of perception, memory, judgment
approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rathe than the sum of parts.
mental processes, including perception, thought, memory and reasoning
links psychological processes to the nervous system
what are the links between cognitive processes and brain activity ?
explains mind and behaviour in terms of adaptive abilities
(1867-1927) structuralist. Studied under wundt. brought psychology to north america
natural selection (also known as functionalism)
(1844-1924) set up first lab in north america. at john hopkins university. functionalist.
charcot and janet
(1856-1939) studied hysteria. Unconscious mind, psychoanalytic theory (unconscious mental processes shape feelings, thoughts, behaviours). dark visions.
abraham maslow and carl rogers
(1908-70) and (1902-87) humanistic psychology. (emphasizes human nature in positive way) "clients" rather then patients
schools of though
structuralism, functionalism, psychoanalysis
(1878-1958) behaviorism emergence. what ppl do then what ppl experience.
(1849-1936) studied salivating dogs. response to stimulus.
development of behaviourism.(1904-90). "skinner box", "teaching machine" free will is we are actually responding to present and past patterns of reinforcement.
(1896) theorized about developing mental lives of children. mound of clay, which ones bigger?
thoughts, behaviours are influenced by others
(1863) first women psychology APA president
(1895) first african-american to hold PhD from clark university
look at whole rather than sum of parts. (phi phenomenon with moving pictures)
tension build up must release.
what went into it being satisfactory?
theory, hypothesis, design study, conduct study, analyze.
anxiety cause need for social affiliation. =anxiety. (manipulate,set up, control)
hope that it will vary as a result of changes. (who you chose to sit with) ---- schacter
random procedure/ sampling /assing.
decrease change that it will mess up results of DV.
# times one rat bites another.
mode, median, mean
mode (most observed. MOST COMMON), median, mean (average, always pulled in one direction. LARGEST SCORE)
bars touching (weight)