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Flashcards in Ch.1 /Ch.2 Deck (76):
1

William James

(1842-1910) Helped create psychology. (first psychologist). (scientific approach that allowed him to as age old questions about the nature of human beings)

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psychology is:

scientific study of mind and behaviour

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mind

private inner experience, perceptions, thoughts.

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behaviour

observable actions of humans and animals.

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FMRI

allows scientists to scan brain

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adaptive

psychological processes that promote the welfare and reproduction of those processes

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subjective sense of self?

perceptions, thoughts, memories, feelings

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perception

allows for recognition, see predators before they see us and avoid walking into traffic.

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memeory

what we are doing and why. to avoid re-doing problems.

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emotions

react to life or death events quickly. Form strong social bonds

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"autopilot"

people behaving automatically. "saying thanks to a machine"

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schools of thought

structuralists (break down mind into components) and Functionalists (how mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environment)

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Plato

believed in nativism (428-347 BC)

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aristotle

plato's student who believed in empiricism. (348-322 BC)

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nativism

knowledge is innate or inborn (nature)

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a tabula rasa

"blank state"

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empricism

knowledge is acquired through experiences (nurture)

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dualism

how mental activity can be coordinated with physical behavior. mind and behaviour.

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renes descartes

(1596-1650) physiology/ philosophy. body and soul are fundamentally different (problem of dualism though) Mind influences brain through pineal gland

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Thomas Hobbes

(1588-1679) mind is what brain does.

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Franz Joseph Gall

(1758-1828) Phreneology (mental abilities ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness are socialized in diff. regions of the brain). Brain and mind are linked.

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hippocampus

memory

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amygdala

fear

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Pierre flourens

(1794-1867) removed parts of brain to analyze phrenology theory (brain has elements/ specific functions in each)

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broca

(1824-80) worked with patient who damaged left side of brain (couldnt speak) ***flourens and broca started mental processes

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Helmholts (1821-94) and Wundt (1832-1920)

physiology. James was attracted to. "H" studied nerve impulses (stimulus/ reaction time). "W" studied structuralism. W, first labratory. W psychology should study conciouscness.

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physiology

biological processes in human body

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stimulus

sensory input from environment

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reaction time

amount of time to respond to stimulus

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consciousness

persons subjective experience of the world and the mind

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structuralism

analysis of basic elements that constitute the mind. introspection.

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introspection

subjective observation of ones own experience

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functionalism

purpose mental processes serve enabling people to adapt to environment

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natural selection

darwins theory dominant features of organism are passed on.

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hysteria

loss of cognitive motor functions, resulting from emotional experiences

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unconscious

mind that operates outside of conscious awareness

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psychoanalytical theory

freuds approach to understanding human behaviour (shaping, feeling, thoughts, behaviours)

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psychoanalysis

brings unconscious material into conscious awareness.

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humanistic psychology

positive potential to human beings. understanding human nature

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behaviorism

objectively observable behavior

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response

action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus.

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reinforcement

consequences of behaviour that determine if behaviour will occur again

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illusions

errors of perception, memory, judgment

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gestalt psychology

approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rathe than the sum of parts.

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cognitive psychology

mental processes, including perception, thought, memory and reasoning

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behavioural neuroscience

links psychological processes to the nervous system

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cognitive neuroscience

what are the links between cognitive processes and brain activity ?

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evolutionary psychology

explains mind and behaviour in terms of adaptive abilities

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edward tichner

(1867-1927) structuralist. Studied under wundt. brought psychology to north america

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Darwin

natural selection (also known as functionalism)

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stanley Hall

(1844-1924) set up first lab in north america. at john hopkins university. functionalist.

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charcot and janet

studied hysteria

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Freud

(1856-1939) studied hysteria. Unconscious mind, psychoanalytic theory (unconscious mental processes shape feelings, thoughts, behaviours). dark visions.

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abraham maslow and carl rogers

(1908-70) and (1902-87) humanistic psychology. (emphasizes human nature in positive way) "clients" rather then patients

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schools of though

structuralism, functionalism, psychoanalysis

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watson

(1878-1958) behaviorism emergence. what ppl do then what ppl experience.

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ivan pavlov

(1849-1936) studied salivating dogs. response to stimulus.

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Skinner

development of behaviourism.(1904-90). "skinner box", "teaching machine" free will is we are actually responding to present and past patterns of reinforcement.

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Jean piaget

(1896) theorized about developing mental lives of children. mound of clay, which ones bigger?

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social psychology

thoughts, behaviours are influenced by others

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Mary Calkins

(1863) first women psychology APA president

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Francis Sumner

(1895) first african-american to hold PhD from clark university

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gestalt physiologist

look at whole rather than sum of parts. (phi phenomenon with moving pictures)

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catharsis

tension build up must release.

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quantitative

numbers

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qualitative

what went into it being satisfactory?

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experiment:

theory, hypothesis, design study, conduct study, analyze.

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independent variable:

anxiety cause need for social affiliation. =anxiety. (manipulate,set up, control)

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dependent variable:

hope that it will vary as a result of changes. (who you chose to sit with) ---- schacter

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extraneous variable:

impact DV.

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random procedure/ sampling /assing.

decrease change that it will mess up results of DV.

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parisomony

simplicity

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operational definition

# times one rat bites another.

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mode, median, mean

mode (most observed. MOST COMMON), median, mean (average, always pulled in one direction. LARGEST SCORE)

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ratio scales

bars touching (weight)

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graphing

bars not touching (hair color)