Change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms.
Main theory of how evolution works. Which is: Individuals in species have hereditary advantages over their competitors which lets them produce offspring. The advantages are passed to offspring become more and more common in future generations. This genetic change is called evolution.
Natural forces that promote reproductive successive of some individuals more than others, ie climate, predators, disease, competition and food.
Features of an organism's anatomy, physiology, and behaviour that have evolved due to selection pressures which helps the organism cope with the challenges of its environment.
An animal species or strain selected for research on a particular problem is called a __________ - for example, a mouse ________ for leukemia. (Just the one word is required)
humans and chimpanzees: 1.6% difference in DNA structure.
chimpanzees and gorillas: 2.3% difference in DNA structure.
DNA differences between humans and chimpanzees; and between chimpanzees and gorillas?
Traces some of our diseases and imperfections to our evolutionary past.
Evolutionary (Darwinian) Medicine?
Hierarchy of Complexity?
11 organ systems
Endocrine - (glands that secrete hormones or other products directly into the blood)
Lymphatic - (vessels through which lymph drains from tissues into the blood)
Number of organ systems and names?
A structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function.
What is an organ?
A mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function.
What is a tissue?
Four primary classes of tissues.
Epithelial - (line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body, and also form many glands)
Connective - (supports, connects, or separates different types of tissues and organs of the body)
Nervous -(Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system - the brain, spinal cord, and nerves-which regulates and controls body functions)
Muscular -(soft tissue that composes muscles)
How many primary classes of tissue are there? And what are they?
The smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life; nothing simpler than a cell is considered alive.
Microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions. Ie, mitochondria, centrioles etc.
Theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components. First espoused by Aristotle.
Human is more than some of parts, that doctors need to treat body as whole.
Organisation - Life has far higher level of organisation than nonliving world
Cellular composition - One or more cells always
Metabolism - Molecules from environment chemically changed; anabolism and catabolism.(See Metabolism card)
Responsiveness and Movement - ability to sense and react to stimuli
Development - Change in form or function during lifetime.
Characteristics of Life or What is Life?
Change chemical molecules from environment to from structures, control physiology or provide energy. Anabolism is make complex molecules from simpler molecules. Catabolism is complex molecules changed to simpler molecules. Metabolism causes waste which must be excreted.
Change in form or function over lifetime of organism.
1. Differentiation - transformation of cells with no specialised function into cells that are committed to a particular task.
2. Growth - increase in size.
A person who has shown no brain waves for 24 hours, and has no reflexes, respiration, or heartbeat other than what is provided by artificial life support can be declared legally dead.
What is legally dead?