(460-375BC) Greek physician considered "father of medicine". Established Hippocratic Oath the code of ethics for physicians. He urged physicians to stop saying that gods and demons caused disease and to seek the natural cause of disease which could be only rational basis for therapy.
(384-322BC). First philosopher to write about anatomy and physiology. He believed diseases and other natural events had either supernatural causes (theologi) or natural causes (physici or physiologi)
(130-200) Physician to Roman Gladiators who wrote most influential medical textbook of ancient era - the book was excessively worshipped by medical professors for centuries.
(1135-1204) Jewish physician. Born in Spain and fled to Egypt at 24 to serve as physician to sultan Saladin. An admired Rabbi he wrote volumes on Jewish law and theology and wrote 10 influential medical books and numerous treatises on specific diseases.
Moses ben Maimon known by Christians as Maimonides
(980-1037) known in west as Avicenna or "the Galen of Islam". He studied Galen and Aristotle. Wrote "the Canon of Medicine" which was leading text in European medical schools for over 500 years.
(1514-64) He taught anatomy in Italy. He wrote the first Atlas of Anatomy called "On the structure of the Human Body" in 1543.
English man (1578-1657) in physiology area studied blood circulation and along with Spanish man Michael Servetus (1511-53) were first Westerners to realise that blood must circulate continuously around body from heart to other organs and back to the heart.
Englishman (1635-1703). Designed various kinds of scientific instruments and improved compound microscope. He shaved cork and saw cells which he named. He published microscope book called Micrographia in 1665. Microscope strength 30x.
Dutch textile merchant (1632-1723) made stronger microscope 200x. He was keen observer of things on micro scale.
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Two Germans Zeiss (1816-88) and Abbe (1840-1905) greatly improved compound microscope.
Carl Zeiss and Ernest Abbe
Germans, Schleiden (1804-81) and Schwaan (1810-82) both concluded that all organisms were composed of cells.
Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
2. The cell is the basic unit of structure, function, and organization in all organisms.
3. All cells come from preexisting, living cells.
Cell Theory (wikipedia)
techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
First prescribed by Englishman Francis Bacon (1561-1626). A process of making many observations until people can draw generalisations and predictions from them.
First, formulate a hypothesis which must be consistent with what is already known and capable of being tested and possibly falsified. Then, a deduction is made in form of "if-then". Ie, If hypothesis correct then sun should rise tomorrow.
Means that if we claim something is scientifically true, we must be able to specify what evidence it would take to prove it wrong. If nothing could possibly prove it wrong, then it is not scientific.
The number of subjects used in a study.
Consists of subjects as close to the treatment group as possible except they don't get the treatment.
These effects (effects of the mind on physiology) can have undesirable affect on experimental results if we don't control for them. It is therefore customary to give control group a placebo.
Psychosomatic affect on experimental results?
By using the double-blind method which is when neither the subject, nor the person giving them the treatment and recording the results, knows who is getting the treatment or the placebo.
How is one way for experimenter bias to be stopped?
A critical evaluation by other experts in the field.
Information that can be independently verified by any trained person - for example the fact that an iron deficiency leads to anemia.
Facts, Laws and Theories. What is a Fact?
A generalisation about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave. Ie Boyles Law, or Law of complementary base pairing where in DNA double helix adenine always pairs with thymine and guanine always pairs with cytosine.
A law of nature?
An explanatory statement or set of statements derived from facts, laws and confirmed hypotheses. Ie Cell Theory. Theory summarises what we already know and suggests directions for further study.