Ch.10 + 11-States of Matter Flashcards Preview

2nd Semester Honors Chem. > Ch.10 + 11-States of Matter > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.10 + 11-States of Matter Deck (41):
1

How are the properties of the particles in a solid?

particles are held tightly in place, only vibrational motion

2

How are the properties of the particles in a solid?

particles are held tightly in place, only vibrational motion

3

How are the properties of the particles in a liquid?

particles slightly more spread out , able to slide past one another (freedom of movement)

4

How are the properties of the particles in a gas?

particles VERY spread out

5

List the 4 ideas of Kinetic Molecular Theory

1. gas particles have insignificant volume

2. particles are in rapid, random, constant motion

3. collisions among particles are elastic

4. Kinetic energy of the particle is proportional to the temp.

6

At what temperature do particles theoretically have no kinetic energy?

0 Kelvin or -273°C

7

Units for pressure

1 atm = 14.7 lb/in2 (psi) = 760 mmHg (torr) = 101.3 kPa

8

What is the relationship between the states of matter and their attractions?

Stronger attraction means more likely it will be a solid. Weaker attraction means more likely it will be a gas.

9

What is the relationship between particles, pressure, and collisions?

More particles, more collisions between the particles means more pressure

10

What is Vapor Pressure?

the pressure exerted by a gas vapor above it's liquid surface a measure of how quickly/easily a liquid evaporates

11

What happens in order for Vapor pressure to increase?

Temperature increase

12

When do liquids boil?

When their Vapor pressure equals the external pressure (usually atmospheric pressure)

13

What are Crystalline solids?

Solids where particles are arranged in orderly, repeating patterns and fixed positions

14

What are Amorphous solids?

Solids where particles lack an ordered internal structure

15

What are Allotropes?

Different forms of the same element in the same state of matter

16

What are unit cells?

The smallest portion of a crystal lattice that shows the three-dimensional pattern of the entire lattice

17

What are the three forms of crystalline carbon?

Diamond, Graphite, and Fullerenes

18

What are examples of Amorphous solids?

Glass, Plastics, Rubbers, and Asphalt

19

Phase Diagram Reference

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20

What does a Phase Diagram show?

The circumstances needed for each phase to exist

21

What is the Triple-Point?

The point where all 3 phases exist in equilibrium

22

What is the Critical point?

The temperature above which liquid can not exist

23

What is it called when a solid goes to a liquid?

Melting Point

24

What is it called when a gas goes to a liquid?

Condensation

25

What is it called when a liquid goes to a solid?

Freezing Point

26

What is it called when a solid goes to a gas?

Sublimation

27

What is it called when a liquid goes to a gas?

Vaporization

28

What is it called when a gas goes to a solid?

Deposition

29

What is Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure?

P(total) = P(A) + P(B) + P(C).....

30

What is Boyle's Law?

Pressure and Volume, inversely proportional

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31

What is Charles Law?

Volume and Temperature, directly proportional

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32

What is Gay-Lussac's Law?

Pressure and Temperature, directly proportional

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33

What is the Combined Law?

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34

What Law is shown?

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Gay Lussac's Law

35

What Law is shown?

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Charles Law

36

What Law is shown?

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Boyle's Law

37

What is the Ideal Gas Law?

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38

What does all Temperature have to be in and how do you get it?

Kelvin K = °C + 273

39

What are the over-simplifications of the Ideal Gas Law?

particles take up no space

particles have no attractive forces

40

When does the Ideal Gas Law not work very well?

High pressure(particles are closer), low Temperature(IMF's are more noticable, and high Density

41

What is Effusion?

The escape of gas through small pores