ch.10 Information and Decision support systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ch.10 Information and Decision support systems Deck (69):
1

Decision Making phase- 3 stages

-Intelligence
-Decision
-Choice

2

Intelligence stage

Stage 1
-identify and define potential problems/opportunities

3

Decision stage

Stage 2
-develop alternative solutions
-evaluate the feasibility

4

Choice stage

selecting course of action

5

Problem solving

-goes beyond decision making
- include implementation stage

6

Implementation stage

solution put in to effect

7

Monitoring stage

decision makers evaluate the implementation (feedback and adjustment)

8

Programmed Decisions

decision made using:
- rule,
-procedure,
-quantitative method

9

non-programmed decision

unusual or exceptional situations
- unique characteristics that standard rules or procedures may not work

10

FINDING A SOLUTION

-Optimization model
-satisficing Model
-Heuristics

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Optimization Model

Finds the best solution

12

Satisficing Model

Will find a good solution- but NOT BEST solution- it simply satisfies the problem

13

Heuristics Model

Commonly accepted guidelines + procedures usually find a good solution-
-RULE OF THUMB

14

Performace to benefits

Increased performance has POSiTIVE IMPACT on benefits

15

Cost to benefits

Increased cost has NEGATIVE IMPACT on benefits

16

Types of reports (5)
1. S
2. K
3. D
4. E
5. DD

-Scheduled report
-Key Indicator report
-demand report
-exception report
-Drill down report

17

Scheduled report

Produced regularly-- daily- weekly- monthly, etc...

18

Key Indicator report

Summary of the days critical activities

19

Demand report

Produced on demand, when info requested

20

Exception report

Automatically produced when something unusual or out of ordinary occurs + requires mgmt attention

21

Drill down report

Provides increasingly detailed data about situation

22

MIS

Management Information System

23

Financial MIS

financial info for executives and broader set of ppl that need to make better decisions

24

Profit centre

Department within org focused on generating profits

25

revenue Centre

Division of org that generates sales/revenue

26

Cost centres

Departments in org that do not directly generate revenue

27

Auditing

Ananlyzing financial conditions to determine if fin. stmt and reports are accurate

28

Internal auditing

done by individuals WITHING the company

29

External auditing

Done by individuals OUTSIDE the company

30

Economic order quantity (EOQ)

Quantity that should be re-ordered to minimize total inventory costs

31

Re-order point (ROP)

critical inventory quantity level

32

Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

Set of imventory control techniques
-help co-ordinate thousands of inventory items when demand for one item depends on demand for another

33

Just in time Inventory (JIT)

inventory/materials DELIVERED just before they are needed

34

cOMPUTER ASSISTED MANUFACTURING (CAM)

Directly controls manufacturing equipment

35

Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)

Computers link components of production process in to effective system

36

Flexible Manufacturing system (FMS)

Allows manufactruing facilities to quickly and efficiently change from making one product to anohter

37

Quality control

Ensures finsihed product meets customer needs

38

Marketing MIS

information system that supports managerial activities of product development, distribution, pricing decisions, promo effectiveness, sales forecasting

39

Human resources MIS (hrmis)

Concerned with activities related to previous, current, potential employees of or-- alos called prsonnel MIS

40

Geographic Information system, (GIS)

computer system capable of assembling , storing, manipulating, displaying, geographic information-- data identified by its lcoation

41

decision support system (dss)

organized collection of ppl. procedures, software, databases. devices used to help make decisions.

42

Ad hoc DSS

Deals with situations/decisions that come up only a few times in life of org

43

Support for various problem structures:
-Highly structured problems
-Semi structured/unstructured

-Highly structured problems: straightyforwasrd, require known facts ad relationship

-Semi structured/Unstructured: more complex problems, relationships among the pieces of data not always clear, data might be in variety of formats, and often difficult to manipulate or obtain.

44

Dialogue manager

user interface that allows decision makers to easily access and manipulate DSS and use common business terms and phrases

45

Data driven DSS

Primarily performs qualitative analysis based on companys database

46

Model base

provides decision makers access to variety of models adn aissts them in decision making

47

Model driven DSS

Primarily perfoms mathematical or qualitative analysis

48

Model management software (MMS)

Coordinates the use of models in DSS

49

Group support systems (GSS )

sw application that consists of most elements in DSS + SW to provide effectiove support in group decision making

50

Decision making support

-Delphi approach
-brainstorming
-Group concensus approach
-nominal group technique

51

Delphi approach

Group decision makers geographically dispersed
-encourages diversity, fosters creativity and original thinking

52

Brainstorming

members offer ideas " off the top of their heads"

53

Group Concensus approachj

forces member to reach unanimous decision

54

Nominal group technique

-feedback from group members, final decision made by voting

55

Group think

members of a group might assume they have made the right decision without examining alternatives

56

Parallel commication

can speed meeting times and result in better decisions

57

Unified communication

ties together and integrates various communications systems, incl traditional phones, cellphones, email, text, internet.

58

GSS software

helps with joiny work groip scheduling, communication, mgmt
-Often called " groupware" or "workgroup software"

59

Shared electronic calendar

used to coordinate meetings and schedules for decision making team

60

GSS Alternatives

-Decision room
Virtual groups

61

DECISION ROOM

room that supports decision making with the decision makers in same building, combining face to face verbal interaction with technology to make the meeting more effective and efficient.

62

lOCAL AREA DECISION

group members located in the same building or geographoc area and group deision making is frequent

63

tELECONFERENCING

used when decision freq. low,
-location of group members distant.

64

wIDE ARE DECISION NETWORK

decision freq. high,
○ but location of group members distnat,
○ allows ppl to work in Virtual groups.

65

Virtual groups

teams of ppl located around the world working on common problems

66

Executive support system (ESS)

specialized DSS that incl all hardware, SW, data, procedures, and ppl used to assist senior level executives.

67

Strategic planning

determining long term objectives by analyzing strengths and weaknesses of organization, predicting future trends, projecting the development of new product lines

68

Decision Making as a component of problem solving
(5 STAGES TOTAL-3 DECISION, 2 PROBLEM

-Decision making stages:

1.Intelligence

2.Decision

3.Choice

-Problem solving stages:

4.Implementation

5.Monitoring

69

Decision Making as a component of problem solving (DETAIL)

Decision making stages:

1.Intelligence -IDENTIFY/DEFINE

2.Decision- ALTERNATIVES/FEASABILITY

3.Choice - ACTION

-Problem solving stages:

4.Implementation- EFFECT

5.Monitoring -EVALUATE IMPLEMENTATION