ch.11- Knowledge mgmt and specialized information systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ch.11- Knowledge mgmt and specialized information systems Deck (32):
1

Chief knowledge office (CKO)

-top level exec
-Helps org use KMS to create, store, use knowledge
-Responsible for org. kms

2

Artificial Intelligence systems

ppl. Procedures, hardware, software, data, knowledge, needed to develop computer systems and machines that demonstrate characteristics of intelligence

3

Intelligent behaviour

-ability to learn from experiences and apply knowledge acquired from those experiences
○ Handle complex situations
○ Solve problems when important info missing
○ Determine what is important and react quickly + correctly to a new situation
○ Understand visual images, process, manipulate symbols
○ Be creative and imaginative
○ Use heuristics

4

Turing test

attempts to determine whether responses from computer with intelligent behavior are indistinguishable from responses from human being

5

Brain computer interface (BCI)

directly connect human brain to computer and have human thought control computer activities

6

Expert systems

HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE THAT STORES KNOWLEDGE AND MAKES INFERENCES

7

Robotics

-mechanical or computer devices
○ Perform tasks req high degree of precision/ that are tedious or hazardous to ppl.
○ Word "robot" comes from 1920's play- word robota-
○ Robots used to do the 3 d's- dull, dirty, dangerous jobs

8

Vision systems

hardware software that allow computers to capture , store, manipulate visual images
- ○ Effective at identifying ppl based on facial features

9

Voice recognition

converts sound waves in t words

10

Learning systems

combination of software ,
○ allows computer to change how it functions/ how reacts in situations based on feedback rec'd.
○ Some computerized games have learning abilities- if computer doesn’t win game- remembers not to do same things again.

11

Learning systems

combination of software ,
○ allows computer to change how it functions/ how reacts in situations based on feedback rec'd.
○ Some computerized games have learning abilities- if computer doesn’t win game- remembers not to do same things again.

12

Reinforcement learning

learning system involving sequential decisions with learning taking place between each decision.

-sophisticated computer programing and optimization techniques

-makes decision, analyzes results, then makes better decision next time.

13

dynamic programming

repeated until it is impossible to make improvements in decision.

14

neural network

computer system that can simulate functioning of human brain
○ Uses massively parallel processors in architecture based on human brains own mesh like structure
§ Simulates neural network using standard computers
§ Can process many pieces of data at same time + learn to recognize patterns.

15

Genetic algororithim

an approach to solving large, complex problems, where many related operations or models change and evolve until best one found
○ Based on theory of evolution
1. Variation
2. Natural selection
○ First step is to change parts of program or combining different program segments in to new program
§ Mimic evolution of species
○ Second step: sect only best Models/algorithms that continue to evolve
§ Programs/program segments that are not as good are discarded
○ This continues until genetic algorithm gives best possible solution to original problem.

16

Genetic algoriithim cont'd

???

17

Intelligent agent

programs and knowledge base used to perform specific task for person, proess, another program
○ Also called intelligent robot or bot

18

Knowledge base

-collection of data , rules, procedures, relationships that must be followed to achieve value or proper outcome
○ Natural extension of database and information and decision support system
○ Must be developed for each unique application

19

Rule

conditional statement that links conditions to actions or outcomes
○ i.,e if-then statements

20

if-then stmts

rules that suggest certain conclusions

21

Inference engine

part of expert system that seeks information and relationships from knowledgebase
○ Provides answers, suggestions, similar to way human does

22

EXPLANATION FACILITY

component of expert system that allows user/decision maker to understand how the expert system, reached conclusion/result.

23

KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION FACILITY

part of expert system that provides convenient, efficient way of capturing + storing all components of KB
○ Easy to use menus

After entering appropriate attributes, knowledge acquisition facility correctly stores information and relationships in knowledge base making the knowledge base easier and less expensive to set up and maintain.

24

DOMAIN EXPERT

person or group with expertise or knowledge for the expert system

25

KNOWLEDGE ENGINEER

person who has training or experience in the design, development, implementation, maintenance of expert system

26

KNOWLEDGE USER

person or group who uses and benefits from expert system

27

MULTIMEDIA

text, graphics, video, animation, audio, other media that can be used to help org. efficiently and effectively achieve its goals

28

VIRTUAL REALITY

term originally referred to immersive virtual reality"- user becomes fully immersed in artificial, 3D world that is completely generated by computer.

29

VIRTUAL REALITY SYSTEM

-enables one or more users to move and react in computer simulated environment.

-special interface devices transmit signals sounds sensations of simulated environment.

-record and send speech and movements of participants to simulation program. Allows user to sense and manipulate virtual objects

30

Augmented reality

Can superimpose digital data over real photo/images

31

game theory

use of information systems to develop competitive strategies for ppl, organizations, countries

32

Informatics

specialized system that combines traditional disciplines like science, medicine, with computer systems and technology