Ch.12 + 13-Solutions & Colligative Properties Flashcards Preview

2nd Semester Honors Chem. > Ch.12 + 13-Solutions & Colligative Properties > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.12 + 13-Solutions & Colligative Properties Deck (35):
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Homogeneous Mixture

Solutions mixed on a molecular level

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Heterogeneous Mixture

Solutions where the separate parts of the solution can be broken apart (can be seen)

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Soluble

Can be dissolved

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Solution

Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase.

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Solute

Substance dissolved in solution

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Solvent

What does the dissolving

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Colloids

Particles that are larger than those in solutions and suspensions.

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Suspension

Particles are large enough that they settle out (separate) unless the mixture is constantly stirred or agitated

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Solvation

-Process of breaking down a compound into ions or individual molecules -Once they are separated the ions or molecules are surrounded by solvent molecules

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Solvated

A solute particle that is surrounded by solvent molecules

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What is the difference between an electrolyte and a non-electrolyte?

An electrolyte is a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current (gives off ions). An non-electrolyte is a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct electric current (not contain ions)

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Miscible

Liquid that can dissolve in each other

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Immiscible 

Liquids that are not soluble in each other

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What factors effect Soluble vs. Insoluble?

Molecular Properties

Temperature

Pressure

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Soluble vs. Insoluble

Molecular Properties- "like dissolves like"(polar/ionic solvents dissolves polar // ionic solutes//non-polar solvents dissolves non-polar solutes)

 

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Soluble vs. Insoluble

Temperature

- Increase temp. = Increase solubility of solids

- Increase temp. = Increase rate of dissolving  

- Increase temp. = Decrease solubility of gases

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Soluble vs. Insoluble

Pressure- Only affects solubilty of gases. 

Pressure increase = Gases Solubility Increase

 

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Unsaturated solution

Solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution

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Saturated solotion

Solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute

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Supersaturated solution

Solution that contains more dissolved solute than a standard solution contains

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What effects whether a solute dissolves?

Polarity

Temperature

Pressure

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What effects how fast a solute dissolves?

Temperature

Particle size

Agitation

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Solubility

The amount of substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent.

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Hydration

Solution process with water as the solvent 

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Henry's Law

The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid

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Effervescence

Rapid escape of a gas form a liquid in which it is dissolved

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Molarity

The number of moles of solute in one liter of solution

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Molality

The concentration of a solution in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent

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Dissociation

The seperation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves

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Net ionic equation 

Equation that includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution

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Spectator ions

Ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution both before and after the reaction (DO NOT form a percipitate)

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Ionization

Ions that are formed from solute molecules by the solvent

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Colligative Properties 

Properties that depend on the concentration of solute particles but NOT on their identity

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What are the Colligative properties?

Vapor Pressure Lowering(Solute hinders the solvent from turning into a gaseous phase)

Boiling-Point Elevation(Particles of solute block the solvent from turning into a gas)

Freezing-Point Depression(Solute particles interferes with the ability for the solvent particles to form a lattice)

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Nonvolatile substance 

Substance that has little tendency to become a gas