Flashcards in ch.12- Systems development: Investigation and analysis Deck (65):
• Systems Design Life Cycle (SDLC) method- 5 phases in developing information systems:
5. Maintenance and review
PPL in organization who themselves or through org. they represent benefit from the systems development project
ppl who interact with the system regularly
○ Employees, managers, suppliers
professional who specializes in analyzing and designing business systems
○ Play various roles while interacting with the stakeholders and users, mgmt, vendors, suppliers, external companies, programmers, other IS support personnel
specialist responsible for modifying or developing programs to satisfy user requirements
○ Takes plans from systems analyst and builds or modifies necessary software
individual systems developper
person who performs all the systems development roles- systems analyst, programmer, technical specialist, etc….
○ Can create applications for group or entire org.
○ May specialize in developing applications for individuals (apps for smartphones etc…)
acquire applications for both personal and professional use.
end user systems development
And systems development project in which the primary effort is undertaken by combination of business managers and users
Information systems planning
translating strategic and organizational goals in to systems development initiatives
investigation of new approaches to existing problems.
Looking at problems in new or different ways, introducing innovative methods to solve them
unbiased and careful questioning of whether system elements are related I the most effective ways
○ Critical analysis in systems development involves:
§ Questioning statements
§ Identifying and resolving objectives and orientations that conflict
mission critical system
systems that play pivotal role in an org. continued operations and goal attainment
critical success factors (CSF)
factors that are essential to the success of a functional area of an org.
-problems/ opportunities identified
○ Considered in light of the goals of the business
study of existing systems and work processes to identify strengths , weaknesses and opportunities for improvement
how the information system will do what it must do to obtain solution
- ○ Details systems outputs, inputs, user interfaces
○ Specifies hardware, software, database, telecommunications, personnel, procedure components and shows how these components are related
Creation or acquisition of various system components detailed in the system design, assembling them, and placing the new modified systems in to operation
- ○ To train the users
○ Results in installed, operational information system that meets business needs.
Can also involve phasing out/ removing old system.
SYSTEMS MAINTENANCE AND REVIEW
: ensures the system operates , modifies system so it continues to meet changing business needs
iterative approach to the systems development process
○ At each iteration requirements and alternative solutions identified and analyzed, new solutions are designed, portion of the systems is implemented.
PROTOTYPING- CLASSIFICATIONS (2)
§ Operational: prototype that works
§ Non- operational: a mock up or model that incl input and output specifications
Rapid application development (RAD)
system development approach that employs tools, techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development.
- ○ Can also be used to make systems development projects more flexible and agile to be able to rapidly change with changing conditions ad environments
requires cooperation and frequent face to face meetings with all participants
EXTREME PROGRAMMING (XP)
uses pairs of programmers who work together to design, test, code parts of the systems they develop
ADAPTIVE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT (ASD)
grew out of rapid application development
○ Stresses iterative process that involves analysis, design, implementation at each cycle iteration
Leab software development
comes from lean manufacturing
○ Stresses continuous learning, just in time decision making, empowering systems development teams, and elimination of waste
RATIONAL UNIFIED DEVELOPMENT (RUP)
○ Uses iterative approach to software development that stresses quality as the software is changed and updated over time.
FEATURE DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT (FDD)
iterative systems development approach that stresses the features of new or modified system,
-developing overall model,
-creating list of features,
-planning by features,
-designing by features,
-building by features
-family of systems development approaches, -concentrates on effective team work, reduction of paper work, bureaucracy to make development projects faster and more efficient.
detailed description of what is to be done
critical date for completion of major part of the project
date the entire project is to be completed and operational
activities that , if delayed, would delay entire project
Program Evaluation and Review Technique
-formalized approach for developing project schedule
-3 estimates for an activity: shortest , most likely, longest possible time
graphical tool used for planning, monitoring, coordinating projects
COMPUTER AIDED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (CASE)
automate many of the tasks req in a systems development effort and encourage adherence to SDLC
Upper case tools
provide automated tools to assist with systems investigation, analysis, design activities
lower case tools
focus on the later implementation stage so systems development, automatically generate program code
Object oriented systems development (OOSD)
approach to systems development
○ combines logic of systems development life cycle with the power of object oriented modelling and programming
SYSTEM REQUEST FORM
document filled out by someone that wants IS department to initiative system investigations.
○ Helps rationalize and prioritize the activities of IS department
assessment of technical, economic, legal, operational, and schedule feasibility pf project.
assessment of whether the hardware, software, and other systems components can be acquired or developed to solve the problem.
determination of whether the project makes financial sense and whether predicted benefits offset the cost and time needed to obtain them.
determination of whether laws or regulations may prevent or limit a system development project
measure whether the project can be put in to action or operation.
determination of whether the project can be completed in a reasonable amount of time
SYSTEMS INVESTIGATION REPORT
Summary of the results of the systems investigation + process of feasibility analysis and recommendation of a course of action.
Advisory group consisting of senior mgmt and users from IS department and other functional areas.
- ○ Helps IS personnel with their decisions about use of information systems
questions written in advance
questions not written in advance
directly observing the existing system in action by one or more members of the analysis team
-discover how data flows
-Method of gathering data when the data sources spread over a wide geographic area.
○ Can be structured or unstructured
selecting random sample of data and applying the characteristics of the sample to the whole group.
○ Assume the sample applies to entire population
Manipulation of collected data so that the development team members who are participating in systems analysis can use the data
DATA FLOW DIAGRAM
model of objects, associations, activities, that describes how data can flow between and around various objects
DATA FLOW LINE
arrows that show the direction of data element movement
represents function that is performed
source or destination of data element
storage location for data
APPLICATION FLOW CHARTS
diagrams that show relationships among applications or systems
table that shows relationships among the various aspects of a systems development effort.
○ Shows which applications use common databases
database of system descriptions, parameters, objectives
determination of user, stakeholder, org. needs
approach to gather data that asks users, stakeholders, other managers about what they want in and expect from new modified system
technique that allows designer to quickly and efficiently design the features, layout, and format of a display screen
More data for infrequent users; less data for freq users