ch.12- Systems development: Investigation and analysis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ch.12- Systems development: Investigation and analysis Deck (65):
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• Systems Design Life Cycle (SDLC) method- 5 phases in developing information systems:

1. Investigation
2. Analysis
3. Design
4. Implementation
5. Maintenance and review

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stakeholders

PPL in organization who themselves or through org. they represent benefit from the systems development project

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USers

ppl who interact with the system regularly
○ Employees, managers, suppliers

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systems analyst

professional who specializes in analyzing and designing business systems
○ Play various roles while interacting with the stakeholders and users, mgmt, vendors, suppliers, external companies, programmers, other IS support personnel

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programmer

specialist responsible for modifying or developing programs to satisfy user requirements
○ Takes plans from systems analyst and builds or modifies necessary software

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individual systems developper

person who performs all the systems development roles- systems analyst, programmer, technical specialist, etc….
○ Can create applications for group or entire org.
○ May specialize in developing applications for individuals (apps for smartphones etc…)

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individual users

acquire applications for both personal and professional use.

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end user systems development

And systems development project in which the primary effort is undertaken by combination of business managers and users

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Information systems planning

translating strategic and organizational goals in to systems development initiatives

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creative analysis

investigation of new approaches to existing problems.
Looking at problems in new or different ways, introducing innovative methods to solve them

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critical analysis

unbiased and careful questioning of whether system elements are related I the most effective ways
○ Critical analysis in systems development involves:
§ Questioning statements
§ Identifying and resolving objectives and orientations that conflict

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mission critical system

systems that play pivotal role in an org. continued operations and goal attainment

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critical success factors (CSF)

factors that are essential to the success of a functional area of an org.

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SYSTEMS INVESTIGATION

-problems/ opportunities identified
○ Considered in light of the goals of the business

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SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

study of existing systems and work processes to identify strengths , weaknesses and opportunities for improvement

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SYSTEMS DESIGN

how the information system will do what it must do to obtain solution
- ○ Details systems outputs, inputs, user interfaces
○ Specifies hardware, software, database, telecommunications, personnel, procedure components and shows how these components are related

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SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION

Creation or acquisition of various system components detailed in the system design, assembling them, and placing the new modified systems in to operation

- ○ To train the users
○ Results in installed, operational information system that meets business needs.

Can also involve phasing out/ removing old system.

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SYSTEMS MAINTENANCE AND REVIEW

: ensures the system operates , modifies system so it continues to meet changing business needs

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PROTOTYPING

iterative approach to the systems development process
○ At each iteration requirements and alternative solutions identified and analyzed, new solutions are designed, portion of the systems is implemented.

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PROTOTYPING- CLASSIFICATIONS (2)

§ Operational: prototype that works
§ Non- operational: a mock up or model that incl input and output specifications

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Rapid application development (RAD)

system development approach that employs tools, techniques, and methodologies designed to speed application development.

- ○ Can also be used to make systems development projects more flexible and agile to be able to rapidly change with changing conditions ad environments

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AGILE DEVELOPMENT

requires cooperation and frequent face to face meetings with all participants

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EXTREME PROGRAMMING (XP)

uses pairs of programmers who work together to design, test, code parts of the systems they develop

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ADAPTIVE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT (ASD)

grew out of rapid application development
○ Stresses iterative process that involves analysis, design, implementation at each cycle iteration

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Leab software development

comes from lean manufacturing
○ Stresses continuous learning, just in time decision making, empowering systems development teams, and elimination of waste

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RATIONAL UNIFIED DEVELOPMENT (RUP)

○ Uses iterative approach to software development that stresses quality as the software is changed and updated over time.

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FEATURE DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT (FDD)

iterative systems development approach that stresses the features of new or modified system,
-developing overall model,
-creating list of features,
-planning by features,
-designing by features,
-building by features

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CRYSTAL METHODOLOGIES

-family of systems development approaches, -concentrates on effective team work, reduction of paper work, bureaucracy to make development projects faster and more efficient.

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PROJECT SCHEDULE

detailed description of what is to be done

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PROJECT MILESTONE

critical date for completion of major part of the project

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PROJECT DEADLINE

date the entire project is to be completed and operational

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CRITICAL PATH

activities that , if delayed, would delay entire project

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Program Evaluation and Review Technique

-formalized approach for developing project schedule

-3 estimates for an activity: shortest , most likely, longest possible time

-

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GANTT CHART

graphical tool used for planning, monitoring, coordinating projects

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COMPUTER AIDED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (CASE)

automate many of the tasks req in a systems development effort and encourage adherence to SDLC

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Upper case tools

provide automated tools to assist with systems investigation, analysis, design activities

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lower case tools

focus on the later implementation stage so systems development, automatically generate program code

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Object oriented systems development (OOSD)

approach to systems development
○ combines logic of systems development life cycle with the power of object oriented modelling and programming

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SYSTEM REQUEST FORM

document filled out by someone that wants IS department to initiative system investigations.
○ Helps rationalize and prioritize the activities of IS department

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FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS

assessment of technical, economic, legal, operational, and schedule feasibility pf project.

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TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY

assessment of whether the hardware, software, and other systems components can be acquired or developed to solve the problem.

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ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY

determination of whether the project makes financial sense and whether predicted benefits offset the cost and time needed to obtain them.

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LEGAL FEASIBILITY

determination of whether laws or regulations may prevent or limit a system development project

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OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY

measure whether the project can be put in to action or operation.

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SCHEDULE FEASIBILITY

determination of whether the project can be completed in a reasonable amount of time

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SYSTEMS INVESTIGATION REPORT

Summary of the results of the systems investigation + process of feasibility analysis and recommendation of a course of action.

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STEERING COMMITTEE

Advisory group consisting of senior mgmt and users from IS department and other functional areas.

- ○ Helps IS personnel with their decisions about use of information systems

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STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS

questions written in advance

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UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEWS

questions not written in advance

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DIRECT OBSERVATION

directly observing the existing system in action by one or more members of the analysis team

-discover how data flows

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QUESTIONNAIRES

-Method of gathering data when the data sources spread over a wide geographic area.
○ Can be structured or unstructured

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STATISTICAL SAMPLING

selecting random sample of data and applying the characteristics of the sample to the whole group.
○ Assume the sample applies to entire population

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DATA ANALYSIS

Manipulation of collected data so that the development team members who are participating in systems analysis can use the data

-

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DATA FLOW DIAGRAM

model of objects, associations, activities, that describes how data can flow between and around various objects

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DATA FLOW LINE

arrows that show the direction of data element movement

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PROCESS SYMBOL

represents function that is performed

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ENTITY SYMBOL

source or destination of data element

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DATA STORE

storage location for data

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APPLICATION FLOW CHARTS

diagrams that show relationships among applications or systems

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GRID CHART

table that shows relationships among the various aspects of a systems development effort.
○ Shows which applications use common databases

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CASE REPOSITORY

database of system descriptions, parameters, objectives

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REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS

determination of user, stakeholder, org. needs

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ASKING DIRECTORY

approach to gather data that asks users, stakeholders, other managers about what they want in and expect from new modified system

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SCREEN LAYOUT

technique that allows designer to quickly and efficiently design the features, layout, and format of a display screen
More data for infrequent users; less data for freq users

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REPORT LAYOUT

allows designers to diagram and format printed reports