Ch.16: Innate Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch.16: Innate Immunity Deck (27):
1

5 Characteristics of innate immunity:

present at birth
always present and provide rapid responses
nonspecific
first line of defense
Second line of defense

2

First line of defense involves:

- intact skin and mucus membranes
- normal microbiota

3

Second line of defense involves:

phagocytes
inflammation
fever
antimicrobial substances

4

enzymes that degrade peptidoglycan (more effective against gram positives), FOUND IN TEARS SALIVA BLOOD AND PHAGOCYTES

LYSOZYME

5

breaks down hydrogen peroxide to produce reactive oxygen, which damages cells including bacterial cells. FOUND IN SALIVA, BODY TISSUES AND PHAGOCYTES

peroxidase

6

How does normal microbial flora on the body protect from disease?

competitive exclusions

7

The responses of the innate system are activated by a protein receptors in the plasma membrane of defensive cells , among these activators are

Toll-like receptors (TLRs)

8

The TLRs attach to a various components commonly found on the pathogens that are called

pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)

9

defensive cells released by TLRs. Are proteins that regulate the intensity of and duration of the immune response

Cytokines

10

Roles of Cytokines

recruit other macrophages and dendritic cells to isolate and destroy microbes
activate T cells and B cells involved in adaptive immunity

11

own their name to the presence of large granules in their cytoplasm that can be seen under a light microscope

granulocytes

12

Three types of granulocytes:

neutrophils
basophils
eosinophils

13

contains two to five lobes, HIGHLY PHAGOCYTIC, and motile are active in the initial stage of infection. destroy microbes and foreign particles

neutrophils

14

releases substances such as HISTAMINE, important in inflammation and allergic response

basophils

15

produce toxic proteins against certain parasites

eosinophils

16

also have granules in their cytoplasm but the granules are not present in light microscope after staining

agranulocyte

17

Three types of agranulocytes

monocytes
dendritic cells
lymphocytes

18

not actively phagocytic until they leave circulating blood, enter tissues and mature into macrophages

monocytes

19

destroy microbes by phagocytosis and to initiate adaptive immune system.

dendriic cells

20

include natural killer cells and B and T cells

lymphocytes

21

PROCESS OF PHAGOCYTOSIS:

1. chemotaxis and adherence
2. ingestion of microbe by phagocyte
3. formation of phagosome, (phagocytic vesicle)
4 fusion of phagosome with a lysosome to form a phagolysosome
5. Digestion of ingested microbes by enzymes in the phagolysosome
6. formation of the residual body containing indigestible material
7. discharge of waste materials

22

Four cardinal signs of inflammation

redness, pain, swelling, heat, and (loss of function)

23

White blood cells are divided into three categories

granulocytes
monocytes
lymphocytes

24

Inflammatory process

1. damage tissue releases pro-inflammatory cytokines, which increases the blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable. Cardinal signs become present
2.Endothelial cells lining the blood vessels produce adhesion molecules that catch the phagocytes as they pass
3. phagocytes and fluid leak out of blood vessels movement DIAPEDESIS. neutrophils are the first phagocytes to arrive. secrete more cytokines to recruit more phagocytes.
4. the phagocytes take up and destroy foreign microbes and damaged cells.
5. Tissue repair

25

series of nine proteins circulating in blood and fluids. INACTIVE FORM.

Complement system

26

Three pathways of activation of the complement system:

alternative pathway
lecitin pathway
classical pathway

27

Activation of complement leads to major protective outcomes

inflammation
opsonization
lysis of foreign cells