CH.2 Flashcards Preview

RAD-BIO > CH.2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in CH.2 Deck (35):
1

____ refers to kinetic energy that passes from one location to another and can have many manifestations.

Radiation

2

Higher frequency
Higher energy
Shorter wavelengths

Ionizing radiation

3

Lower energy
Lower frequency
Longer wavelengths

Nonionizing radiation

4

The electromagnetic spectrum can be divided into two parts:

1. Ionizing
2. Nonionizing

5

The following radiations are classified and ionizing radiations:

1. X-rays
2. Gamma rays
3. Ultraviolet (High-energy)

6

The following radiations are classified and non-ionizing radiations:

1. Visible light
2. Infrared rays
3. Microwaves
4. Radio waves
5. Ultraviolet (Low-energy)

7

Ionizing radiation

basis of interactions of x-rays with human tissues

8

Non-ionizing radiation

insufficient kinetic energy to eject an electron from an atom

9

electromagnetic radiation

high enough frequency to transfer sufficient energy to some orbital electrons to remove them from their atom

10

Another term for weighting factors?

Quality factors

11

X-rays/Beta particles/Gamma photons have a weighting factor of:

1

12

Alpha particles have a weighting factor of:

20

13

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom constitutes its ____

atomic number aka "Z" number

14

The ___ ___ identifies an element and determines its placement in the periodic table of elements.

atomic number

15

radiation quantity used for radiation protection purposes when a person receives exposure from various types of ionizing radiation

Equivalent dose

16

manufactured quantity that takes into account the dose for all types of ionizing radiation to various irritated organ or tissues in the human body

Effective dose

17

what is the most damaging radiation to tissues:

alpha (more damaging as a source of internal radiation);
(harmless as an external source of radiation)

18

this particle has more penetration but causes less damage along the way

beta particles

19

This form of radiation can travel through space in
the form of a wave but can interact with matter as
a particle of energy

wave-particle duality

20

The amount of energy transferred to electrons by
ionizing radiation is the basis of the concept of:

radiation dose

21

ejecting electrons from the atoms composing the tissues results in molecular change this is called:

biologic damage

22

leading to abnormal cell function or even entire loss of cell function is called:

cellular damage

23

What kind of changes can cellular damage cause?

genetic or somatic changes such as:
mutations/cataracts/leukemia

24

Total annual dose for natural types of radiation?

3.0 mSv

25

Total annual dose for medical imaging?

3.2 mSv

26

Total annual EqD from all sources?

6.3 mSv

27

results from negligible exposure to ionizing radiation this is called:

organic damage

28

What are the two sources of ionizing radiation?

Natural and manmade

29

How much radiation can air travel give to us?

EqD rate of 0.005 to 0.01 mSv/hour

30

Name the 4 types of particulate radiation?

1. Alpha particles
2. Beta particles
3. Neutrons
4. Protons

31

Ionizing radiation is what causes:

tissue damage

32

Which body part when imaged has the highest fetal dose and lowest entrance skin exposure?

Lumbar spine (AP)

33

Occupation and nonoccupational dose limits are expressed as?

EfD (effective dose)

34

____ cancer continues to be the main adverse health effect of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

Thyroid

35

What was the total average annual radiation exposure from manmade and natural radiation as of 2006?

6.3 mSv per year