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Flashcards in CH.2 Deck (27):
1

Chattel Slavery

The ownership of human beings as property

2

Neo-Europes

Where colonists sought to replicate economies and social structures they knew at home

3

Encomienda

Conquistadors received them from the crown, which allowed them to claim tribute in labor and goods from Indian communities

4

Columbian Exchange

The movement of diseases and peoples across the Atlantic was part of a larger pattern of biological transformation

5

Outwork

English merchants would buy wool from the owners of great estates and send it out to landless peasants to sew and weave into cloth

6

Mercantilism

State-assisted manufacturing and trade

7

House of Burgesses

Virginia company created a system of representative government that could make laws and levy taxes, although the governor and the company council in England could veto the acts

8

Royal Colony

The king and ministers appointed the governor and a small advisory council, retaining the locally elected House of Burgesses (James I made Virginia)

9

Freeholds

Farms of 30 to 50 acres owned and farmed by families or male partners

10

Headright System

In Virginia, the system guaranteed 50 acres of land to anyone who paid the passage of a new immigrant to the colony (by buying more slaves, the colony's largest planters got more land)

11

Indentured Servitude

Bound the men to work for a master for 4 or 5 years, after which they would be free to marry and work for themselves

12

Pilgrims

Religious separatists - Puritans who left the Church of England

13

Puritans

Protestants who did not separate from the Church of England but hoped to purify it of its ceremony and hierarchy - fled to America

14

Joint-stock Corporation

A commercial agreement that allows investors to pool their resources (Massachusetts Bay Colony)

15

Predestination

God saved only a few chosen people

16

Toleration

Political magistrates had authority over only the "bodies, goods, and outward estates of men" not their spiritual life

17

Convenant of Works

Saved the well-behaved

18

Convenant of Grace

God saved those predestined for salvation

19

Town Meeting

Men had a vote in this, the main institution of local government

20

Philip II

Ruler of Spain, determined to root out challenges to the Catholic Church

21

Francis Drake

Part of Elizabethan "sea dogs" (English seafarers who took aggressive actions against Spanish control of American wealth). He ventured into the Pacific to disrupt Spanish shipping to Manila, completed the first English circumnavigation of the globe and captured Spanish treasure ships to bring back to England.

22

Opechancanough

Powhatan's younger brother, leader of Potomack Indians, attacked the first English invaders, refused to place Indian children in christian schools. He attacked English settlers and sparked a war between Virginian settlers and Indians.

23

Lord Baltimore

King Charles I granted lands to him, made Maryland a refuge for Catholics, who were subject to persecution in England. He persuaded the assembly to enforce the toleration act which granted the Christians the right to follow their beliefs and hold church services

24

John Winthrop

Led the Puritan exodus, became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Transformed their joint-stock corporation into a representative political system with a governor, council, and assembly.

25

Roger Williams

Was a puritan minister at Salem, opposed the decision to establish an official religion and praised the Pilgrims' separation of church and state. Advocated toleration. Him and his followers settled in Providence.

26

Anne Hutchinson

Believed that there was no convenant of works, only convenant of grace. Massachusetts Bay magistrates saw her as a threat to their authority

27

Metacom

The Wampanoag leader, believed Indians and English could not coexist. Attacked white settlements throughout New England. Indians lost and were displaces, destroyed their existence as independent people.