Flashcards in Ch.2 (Exam 1) Deck (70):
Pharmacokinetics: Excretion ?
A biologically active substance that can modify cellular function
What is the most common and most popular route of administration in the U.S.?
The oral route, which includes tablets, capsules, and liquids.
The study of how a drug enters the body, circulates within the body, is changed by the body, and leaves the body
The route of Administration affects both the?
Time it takes for the drug to begin to have its effect
The length of time of a drug’s effect
Type of Parenteral?
involves the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines (i.e., the gastrointestinal tract).
Administrated through oral or rectal administration. (The most commonly used enteral dose forms in dentistry are the tablet and capsule)
T/F The GREATER the potency of a drug, the SMALLER the dose needed
T/F Drugs with smaller milligrams is most potent
What does ADME stand for with Pharmacokinetics?
What is the most important absorption for of oral drugs?
The breaking down of a drug for its removal from the body. Also known as biotransformation
what is the most important site for metabolism of drugs?
The removal of the drug from the body. Drug elimination terminates drug effects.
What is the most important organ of excretion?
The process by which a drug leaves the blood stream and enters the body systems. Drugs are distributed to organs with highest blood flow.
The transfer of a drug from the site of administration to the blood stream. IV administration drugs by pass this step
T/F Distribution: Oral doses ultimately travel to the liver?
T/F Distribution: Sublingual doses travel to the heart
T/F Distribution: Drugs may be bound to proteins in the blood, especially plasma albumin
T/F Absorption: Lipid soluble drugs move across most biological membranes by diffusion, and may pass the blood-brain barrier
Amount of drug needed to produce an effect
Terms used to measure drug response or action?
T/F Each drug has its own dose effect curve
Determines the effective dose of any drug
The maximal response drug, regardless of the dose!!!
administering more drug will not increase the efficacy of the drug
What are the Metabolism mechanisms?
Active to inactive
Inactive to active (most common)
Active to Active
Renal Route: Elimination of substances in the kidney can occur by the following three routes?
Active tubular secretion
Passive tubular diffusion
Factors that influence rate of drug absorption?
Site of absorption
Solubility of drug
Factors that affect drug absorption and clincal pharmacokinetics?
Presence of infection'
Blood flow at injection site
Two major groups of Route of Drug Administration?
Placed directly into the GI Tract
Bypasses the GI Tract
IV, IM, SQ, Intradermal, Inhalation, topical and sublingual
Safest, least expensive and most convenient
produces the MOST RAPID drug response?
Large area for absorption (small intestine) well absorbed.
Less predictable blood levels
Drug inactivation by acid, enzymes or first pass effect
Poor patient acceptance.
Suppositories, creams, enema
May be be used if a patient is vomiting or unconscious
Poor and irregular rectally
Rectal Route of Administration
Best for emergency situations.
More predictable blood levels
absorption phase is bypassed
Disadvantages include phlebitis, irretrievability and allergy
Provides sustained effect
Absorption due to high blood flow in skeletal muscle
Massaging muscle will increase the drug's absorption
Deltiod or gluteal muscles common injection site
Used to administer protein products
INSULIN is administered subcutaneously- it is inactivated by GI acid enzymes
Local anesthesia in dentistry is delivered subcutaneously
Side effects may include sterile abscess or hematoma
Injection into epidermis
Example includes the TB skin test (mantox)
Provides rapid deivery across large surface area of respiratory mucosa.
Asthma inhalers and nitrous oxide/oxygen sedation
One measure of duration
The amount of time necessary for a drug to fall to 1/2 of its original blood level
Where the dose is increasing sharply
where the curve plateaus(flattens out)
Highest abuse potential, no accepted medical use, Schedule drug?
High abuse potential, written prescription with signature only, No refills
Moderate abuse potential, may be phone in, five Rx in six months
Lower abuse potential, may be phone in, five Rx in six months
Lowest abuse potential, some may be available OTC
Effects occurring at the site of administration
Example includes pain or irritation at an injection site
Occurs when the effect of one drug is altered by another drug.
May result in toxicity OR lack of effectiveness of the drug
Formulation for Therapeutic Index?
T/F The greater the TI, the safer the drug.
T/F Drugs with lower TI (closer to zero) require careful monitoring to avoid toxic reactions
what does LD50 stand for
what does ED50 stand for
The cytochrome P-450 microsomal enzyme system can be "inducers" that?
Speed up the drug metabolism
The cytochrome P-450 microsomal enzyme system can be "inhibited" that is ?
To reduce or slow down drug metabolism
A process by which a substance is transported against a concentration gradient or electrochemical gradient?
Does not move against a concentration gradient?
Lipid-soluble substance moves across the lipoprotein membrane by a passive transfer process?
A drug that has affinity for a receptor, combines with the receptor and produces an effect?
A drug that has affinity for a receptor, combines with the receptor and produces no effect?
Bind to a receptor site that is different from the binding site for the agonist. It reduces the maximal response of the agonist?
Decreases the Maximal response of the agonist by producing an opposite effect?
T/F less potent drugs require higher doses to produce therapeutic effects, whereas more potent drugs can reach toxic levels at lower doses!