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Flashcards in Ch.2 (Exam 1) Deck (70):
1

Pharmacokinetics: Excretion ?

Renal (kidney)
Lungs
Bile
Gastrointestinal tract
Sweat
Saliva
Milk

2

Define Drug?

A biologically active substance that can modify cellular function

3

What is the most common and most popular route of administration in the U.S.?

The oral route, which includes tablets, capsules, and liquids.

4

Pharmacokinetics?

The study of how a drug enters the body, circulates within the body, is changed by the body, and leaves the body

5

The route of Administration affects both the?

Onset
Duration


6

Onset?

Time it takes for the drug to begin to have its effect

7

Duration?

The length of time of a drug’s effect

8

Type of Parenteral?

Injection
Inhalation
Topical

9

Enteral?

involves the esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines (i.e., the gastrointestinal tract).
Administrated through oral or rectal administration. (The most commonly used enteral dose forms in dentistry are the tablet and capsule)

10

T/F The GREATER the potency of a drug, the SMALLER the dose needed

True

11

T/F Drugs with smaller milligrams is most potent

True

12

What does ADME stand for with Pharmacokinetics?

Absorption
Distribution
Metabolism
Elimination

13

What is the most important absorption for of oral drugs?

Small Intestines

14

The breaking down of a drug for its removal from the body. Also known as biotransformation

Metabolism

15

what is the most important site for metabolism of drugs?

Liver

16

The removal of the drug from the body. Drug elimination terminates drug effects.

Elimination

17

What is the most important organ of excretion?

Kidney

18

The process by which a drug leaves the blood stream and enters the body systems. Drugs are distributed to organs with highest blood flow.

Distribution

19

The transfer of a drug from the site of administration to the blood stream. IV administration drugs by pass this step

Absorption

20

T/F Distribution: Oral doses ultimately travel to the liver?

True

21

T/F Distribution: Sublingual doses travel to the heart

True

22

T/F Distribution: Drugs may be bound to proteins in the blood, especially plasma albumin

True

23

T/F Absorption: Lipid soluble drugs move across most biological membranes by diffusion, and may pass the blood-brain barrier

True

24

Amount of drug needed to produce an effect

Potency

25

Terms used to measure drug response or action?

Potency
dose
Efficacy

26

T/F Each drug has its own dose effect curve

True

27

Determines the effective dose of any drug

Dose

28

The maximal response drug, regardless of the dose!!!
administering more drug will not increase the efficacy of the drug

Efficacy

29

What are the Metabolism mechanisms?

Active to inactive
Inactive to active (most common)
Active to Active

30

Renal Route: Elimination of substances in the kidney can occur by the following three routes?

Glomerular Filtration
Active tubular secretion
Passive tubular diffusion

31

Factors that influence rate of drug absorption?

Physicochemical properties
Site of absorption
Solubility of drug

32

Factors that affect drug absorption and clincal pharmacokinetics?

Presence of infection'
Dose form'
Drug solubility
Blood flow at injection site

33

Two major groups of Route of Drug Administration?

Enteral
Parenteral

34

Placed directly into the GI Tract
Oral Route
Rectal Route

Enteral

35

Bypasses the GI Tract
IV, IM, SQ, Intradermal, Inhalation, topical and sublingual

Parenteral

36

Safest, least expensive and most convenient

Oral Route

37

produces the MOST RAPID drug response?
Fast absorption.

IV (Intravascular)

38

Large area for absorption (small intestine) well absorbed.
Less predictable blood levels
Drug inactivation by acid, enzymes or first pass effect

Oral Route

39

Poor patient acceptance.
Suppositories, creams, enema
May be be used if a patient is vomiting or unconscious
Poor and irregular rectally

Rectal Route of Administration

40

Best for emergency situations.
More predictable blood levels
absorption phase is bypassed
Disadvantages include phlebitis, irretrievability and allergy

IV (Intravascular)

41

Provides sustained effect
Absorption due to high blood flow in skeletal muscle
Massaging muscle will increase the drug's absorption
Deltiod or gluteal muscles common injection site

IM intramuscular

42

Used to administer protein products
INSULIN is administered subcutaneously- it is inactivated by GI acid enzymes
Local anesthesia in dentistry is delivered subcutaneously
Side effects may include sterile abscess or hematoma

Subcutaneous

43

Injection into epidermis
Example includes the TB skin test (mantox)

Intradermal

44

Provides rapid deivery across large surface area of respiratory mucosa.
Asthma inhalers and nitrous oxide/oxygen sedation

Inhalation

45

One measure of duration
The amount of time necessary for a drug to fall to 1/2 of its original blood level

Half-life

46

Where the dose is increasing sharply

Therapeutic range

47

where the curve plateaus(flattens out)

Maximum response

48

Highest abuse potential, no accepted medical use, Schedule drug?

Schedule 1

49

High abuse potential, written prescription with signature only, No refills

Schedule 2

50

Moderate abuse potential, may be phone in, five Rx in six months

Schedule 3

51

Lower abuse potential, may be phone in, five Rx in six months

Schedule 4

52

Lowest abuse potential, some may be available OTC

Schedule 5

53

Effects occurring at the site of administration
Example includes pain or irritation at an injection site

Local Effect

54

Occurs when the effect of one drug is altered by another drug.
May result in toxicity OR lack of effectiveness of the drug

Drug Interaction

55

Formulation for Therapeutic Index?

TI=LD50/ED50

56

T/F The greater the TI, the safer the drug.

True

57

T/F Drugs with lower TI (closer to zero) require careful monitoring to avoid toxic reactions

True

58

what does LD50 stand for

Lethal dose

59

what does ED50 stand for

Effective dose

60

The cytochrome P-450 microsomal enzyme system can be "inducers" that?

Speed up the drug metabolism

61

The cytochrome P-450 microsomal enzyme system can be "inhibited" that is ?

To reduce or slow down drug metabolism

62

A process by which a substance is transported against a concentration gradient or electrochemical gradient?

Active transport

63

Does not move against a concentration gradient?

Facilitated diffusion

64

Lipid-soluble substance moves across the lipoprotein membrane by a passive transfer process?

Simple diffusion

65

A drug that has affinity for a receptor, combines with the receptor and produces an effect?

Agonist

66

A drug that has affinity for a receptor, combines with the receptor and produces no effect?

Competitive antagonist

67

Bind to a receptor site that is different from the binding site for the agonist. It reduces the maximal response of the agonist?

Noncompetitive antagonist

68

Decreases the Maximal response of the agonist by producing an opposite effect?

Physiologic antagonist

69

T/F less potent drugs require higher doses to produce therapeutic effects, whereas more potent drugs can reach toxic levels at lower doses!

True

70

A dose form that looks like the active agent but contains no active ingredient (the sugar pill)

Placebo