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Flashcards in Ch2-P56-60 Deck (23):

decomposition reactions are?

 when a large molecule breaks down into two or more smaller ones; symbolically, AB → A + B.


Synthesis reactions are?

When two or more small molecules combine to form a larger one; symbolically, A + B → AB


What are exchange reactions?

When two molecules exchange atoms or groups of atoms; AB + CD → AC + BD


What are Reversible reactions?

They are reactions that can go in either direction under different circumstances and are represented with paired arrows. For example, carbon dioxide combines with water to produce carbonic acid, which in turn decomposes into bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions:

See diagram below


Reversible reactions follow the law of mass action: They proceed from the side with the greater quantity of reactants to the side with the lesser quantity. 


What is a state of equilibrium?

In the absence of upsetting influences, reversible reactions exist in a state of equilibrium, in which the ratio of products to reactants is stable. 


The rate of a reaction depends on what? Name three factors that affect reaction rates with brief explanation of each?

 The nature of the reactants and on the frequency and force of the collisions.

Some factors that affect reaction rates are;

Concentration. Reaction rates increase when the reactants are more concentrated. This is because the molecules are more crowded and collide more frequently.

Temperature. Reaction rate increases as the temperature rises. This is because heat causes molecules to move more rapidly and collide with greater force and frequency.

Catalysts . These are substances that temporarily bind to reactants, hold them in a favorable position to react with each other, and may change the shapes of reactants in ways that make them more likely to react. By reducing the element of chance in molecular collisions, a catalyst speeds up a reaction. It then releases the products and is available to repeat the process with more reactants. The catalyst itself is not consumed or changed by the reaction. The most important biological catalysts are enzymes.


metabolism? explain the two divisions and what the reactions of the divisions are called and what they do?

All the chemical reactions in the body are collectively called metabolism has two divisions: catabolism and anabolism.

Catabolism consists of energy-releasing decomposition reactions. Such reactions break covalent bonds, produce smaller molecules from larger ones, and release energy that can be used for other physiological work. Energy-releasing reactions are called exergonic reactions

Anabolism consists of energy-storing synthesis reactions, such as the production of protein or fat. Reactions that require an energy input, such as these, are called endergonic reactions. Anabolism is driven by the energy that catabolism releases, so endergonic and exergonic processes, anabolism and catabolism, are inseparably linked.


Oxidation is?

 Any chemical reaction in which a molecule gives up electrons and releases energy. A molecule is oxidized by this process, and whatever molecule takes the electrons from it is an oxidizing agent (electron acceptor).


Reduction is?

 A chemical reaction in which a molecule gains electrons and energy. When a molecule accepts electrons, it is said to be reduced; a molecule that donates electrons to another is therefore called a reducing agent (electron donor). The oxidation of one molecule is always accompanied by the reduction of another, so these electron transfers are known as oxidation–reduction (redox) reactions.


Organic molecules have been classified into four primary categories of life. What are the four categories?

 carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.


Name five functional groups of organic molecules.

  • Hydroxyl (-OH) - sugars, alcohols
  • Methyl (-CH3) - fats, oils, steroids, amino acids
  • Carboxyl (-COOH) - amino acids, sugars, proteins
  • Amino (-NH2) - amino acids, proteins
  • Phosphate (-H2PO4) - nucleic acids, ATP


polymers are?

molecules made of a repetitive series of identical or similar subunits called monomers 


What is polymerization and how do living cells achieve this?

The joining of monomers to form a polymer is called polymerization. Living cells achieve this by means of a reaction called dehydration synthesis (condensation). A hydroxyl (—OH) group is removed from one monomer and a hydrogen (—H) from another, producing water as a by-product. The two monomers become joined by a covalent bond, forming a dimer. This is repeated for each monomer added to the chain, potentially leading to a chain long enough to be considered a polymer.


The opposite of dehydration synthesis is called? Explain how this works?

 Hydrolysis16. In hydrolysis, a water molecule ionizes into OH− and H+. A covalent bond linking one monomer to another is broken, the OH− is added to one monomer, and the H+ is added to the other one. All digestion consists of hydrolysis reactions.


A carbohydrate is?

 It is a hydrophilic organic molecule with the general formula (CH2O)n, where n represents the number of carbon atoms. In glucose, for example, n = 6 and the formula is C6H12O6. As the generic formula shows, carbohydrates have a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen.


The simplest carbohydrates are monomers called _____ or simple _______? Name the three of primary importance and give the molecular formula for them all?

  1. monosaccharides
  2.  sugars

The three of primary importance are glucose, fructose, and galactose, all with the molecular formula C6H12O6; they are isomers of each other


a =;  tom =

 not; cut


iso = ; top =

same;  place (same position in the periodic table)


iso = ; mer =

same; part


hydro = ; philic =

 = water;  = loving, attracted to


phobic =

 fearing, avoiding


calor =

 = heat


collo = ; oid =

 = glue;  = like, resembling