Ch2-P60-62 Flashcards Preview

BMS129-A&P > Ch2-P60-62 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch2-P60-62 Deck (23):

cato =

 = down, to break down


ex, exo = ; erg =

 = out;  = work


ana =

= up, to build up


end, endo =

 = in


poly = ; mer =

 = many; = part


hydro = ; lysis =

= water;  = splitting apart


carbo = ; hydr =

= carbon; = water


mono = ; sacchar =

 = one; = sugar


glyco = ; gen =

= sugar; = producing


con = ; jug =

= together; = join


Disaccharides are?

 sugars composed of two monosaccharides. The three of greatest importance are sucrose (made of glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (glucose + glucose).

Sucrose is produced by sugarcane and sugar beets and used as common table sugar. Lactose is milk sugar. Maltose is a product of starch digestion and is present in a few foods such as germinating wheat and malt beverages.



Short chains of three or more monosaccharides are called? What are long chains called? Give chain size estimate of each


And long chains (up to thousands of monosaccharides long) are called polysaccharides. There is no exact criterion for when a chain is long enough to be called a polysaccharide, but a chain of 10 or 20 monosaccharides would generally be considered an oligosaccharide, whereas a chain of 50 or more would generally be considered a polysaccharide.


Glucose is

 the “blood sugar” that provides energy to most of our cells. 


Two monosaccharides, ribose and deoxyribose, are important components of _______ and _______ ?

 DNA and RNA.


Glycogen is?

 an energy-storage polysaccharide made by cells of the liver, muscles, brain, uterus, and vagina. It is a long branched glucose polymer. It is the only polysaccharide found in human tissues.


Starch is

 the corresponding energy-storage polysaccharide of plants. They store it when sunlight and nutrients are available and draw from it when photosynthesis is not possible (for example, at night and in winter, when a plant has shed its leaves). Starch is the only significant digestible polysaccharide in the human diet.


Cellulose is?

 a structural polysaccharide that gives strength to the cell walls of plants. It is the principal component of wood, cotton, and paper. It consists of a few thousand glucose monomers joined together.

Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on earth and it is a common component of the diets of humans and other animals—yet we have no enzymes to digest it and thus derive no energy or nutrition from it. Nevertheless, it is important as dietary “fiber,” “bulk,” or “roughage.” It swells with water in the digestive tract and helps move other materials through the intestine.


Glycolipids are?

 lipids with a carbohydrate attached. Their role is to provide energy and also serve as markers for cellular recognition.


Glycoproteins are?

 proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains.


Proteoglycans are?

 They are macromolecules in which the carbohydrate component is dominant and a peptide or protein forms a smaller component. Proteoglycans form gels that help hold cells and tissues together, form a gelatinous filler in the umbilical cord and eye, lubricate the joints of the skeletal system, and account for the tough rubbery texture of cartilage.



Each chemically different component of macromolecules.

Wikipedia:  is a part of a molecule that may include either whole functional groups or parts of functional groups as substructures. 


A lipid is?

 a hydrophobic organic molecule, usually composed only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a high ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. A fat called tristearin (tri-STEE-uh-rin), for example, has the molecular formula C57H110O6—more than 18 hydrogens for every oxygen. Lipids are less oxidized than carbohydrates, and thus have more calories per gram.


The five primary types of lipids in humans are?

fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, eicosanoids, and steroids