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Flashcards in Ch.23 Deck (71):
1

The region of the respiratory tract where air moves in and out; from external nares to terminal bronchioles.

conducting division (zone)

2

The region of the respiratory tract where gas exchange occurs; alveoli and respiratory bronchioles

respiratory division (zone)

3

The airway from nose to larynx - that part in the head and neck.

upper respiratory tract

4

The airway from trachea through lungs - that part in the thorax.

lower respiratory tract

5

The reason you have well-vascularized, highly folded nasal conchae

warm, humidify, filter the air

6

The only region of the pharynx lined with ciliated epithelium.

nasopharynx

7

The epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, and cricoid cartilage are all part of the ...

larynx

8

The opening between the vocal cords is called the...

glottis

9

C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage support the wall of the....

trachea

10

purpose of the trachealis muscle

constricts to increase airway resistance

11

lung with 3 lobes

right

12

lung with cardiac notch

left

13

This happens to increase airway resistance within the lungs

bronchoconstriction

14

This division of the autonomic nervous system stimulates bronchodilation

sympathetic

15

Main component of connective tissue in the lungs.

elastic fibers

16

Airways with a diameter of <1mm, no cartilage

bronchioles

17

4 distinct layers of serous membrane associated with the lungs

visceral and parietal pleura of each lung

18

normal breathing

eupnea

19

labored breathing

dyspnea

20

stopping breathing

apnea

21

We say lungs are ____, because a small change in transpulmonary pressure means a large change in volume.

compliant

22

This component of alveolar fluid reduces its surface tension.

surfactant

23

Which pressure is always lower: intrapleural or intrapulmonary?

intrapleural

24

True or false: intrapulmonary pressure is always lower than atmospheric pressure

false

25

Air in the pleural cavity

pneumothorax

26

Blood in the pleural cavity.

hemothorax

27

Collapse of a lung

atelectasis

28

During quiet inspiration, the intrapleural pressure is commonly ___ mm Hg, and the intrapulmonary pressure is _____ mm Hg, which is (higher or lower) than atmospheric P.

754; 757- lower

29

During expiration, the intrapleural P (rises or falls) to _____ mm Hg, and the intrapulmonary pressures (rises or falls) to _____ mm Hg - (higher or lower) than atmospheric P.

rises-756; rises-763 - higher

30

Which is more affected in restrictive disorders such as emphysema - inhalation, or exhalation?

exhalation

31

Formula for alveolar ventilation rate

respiratory rate X (tidal volume - dead air space)

32

Which type of breathing reduces alveolar ventilation: shallow, or deep?

shallow breathing

33

The 3 vital reflex centers (cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory) are located in this part of the brain.

medulla

34

Another name for the inspiratory center in the medulla

DRG, dorsal respiratory group

35

Another name for the expiratory center in the medulla.

VRG, ventral respiratory group

36

Spinal nerves that supply the intercostal muscles

thoracic nerves

37

Spinal nerves that supply the diaphragm.

cervical nerves

38

Specific nerves that supply the diaphragm

phrenic nerves

39

Location in the brain of the pneumotaxic and apneustic centers

pons

40

Basic effect of the pneumotaxic center.

inhibits DRG

41

Basic effect (we think) of the apneustic center

prolongs inspiration

42

True or false: the movement of air into and out of the respiratory system is called gas exchange

false

43

The exchange of respiratory gases in the lungs.

external respiration

44

The exchange of respiratory gases in the systemic tissues.

internal respiration

45

This law states that the contribution to the total pressure of each gas in a mixture is proportional to its percentage of total number of molecules

Dalton's law

46

This law states that pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional.

Boyle's law

47

This law states that the amount of a gas that dissolves in water is determined not only by its partial pressure, but also by its solubility in water.

Henry's law

48

The partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in alveolar air are...

104 mm Hg, 40 mm Hg

49

The function of the type II pulmonary cells (also called septal cells or great alveolar cells).

secrete surfactant

50

These cells are responsible for removing debris within the alveoli.

alveolar macrophages

51

The name of the cell type that forms most of the alveolar wall

type I pulmonary (squamous alveolar)

52

The structure through which gas exchange in the lungs occurs.

respiratory membrane

53

Thickness of the respiratory membrane

0.5 micrometers

54

Oxygen first comes in contact with this part of the respiratory membrane, after dissolving in alveolar fluid.

squamous alveolar (type I pulmonary epithelial)

55

Carbon dioxide first comes in contact with this part of the respiratory membrane, before diffusing in external respiration.

Capillary endothelial cell

56

In this disorder, the accumulation of fluids separates the pulmonary capillaries from the alveolar walls, increasing the distance of diffusion and reducing gas exchange.

pulmonary edema

57

When air flow (ventilation) to a part of a lung decreases, blood flow (perfusion) to that same area (increases or decreases).

decreases

58

When air flow to a particular region of the lung is high, (bronchoconstriction or bronchodilation) will occur to shift fresh air to other parts of the lung.

bronchoconstriction

59

Partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in tissue fluid, systemic venous blood, and pulmonary arterial blood

40 mm Hg, 46 mm Hg

60

The percent saturation of hemoglobin in venous blood (resting value).

75%

61

At 75% saturation, how many oxygen molecules (on average) is each hemoglobin molecule carrying?

3 oxygen molecules per hemoglobin

62

When pH decreases or temperature increases, the ability of hemoglobin to hold oxygen (increases or decreases).

decreases

63

The enzyme in RBCs that is essential to carbon dioxide transport.

carbonic anhydrase

64

When pCO2 of blood increases, pH (increases or decreases).

decreases

65

When bicarbonate ions diffuse out of RBCs in systemic capillaries, this ion shifts into the RBCs to provide electrical and osmotic balance.

chloride

66

When hemoglobin gives up oxygen, it can more easily pick up carbon dioxide; this is known as the ...

Haldane effect

67

The percentage of carbon dioxide carried as bicarbonate, carbaminohemoglobin, and physically dissolved CO2 in systemic venous blood.

70%, 23%, 7%

68

These visceral sensory receptors, found in aortic and carotid bodies, respond especially to hypercapnia and acidemia, but also to hypoxia.

peripheral chemoreceptors

69

These 2 pairs of cranial nerves carry impulses concerning blood pressure and blood chemistry from the aortic sinus and body and from the carotid sinuses and bodies.

vagus, glossopharyngeal

70

The part of the brain with central chemoreceptors, responsive expecially to hypercapnia (since hydrogen ions can't cross the blood-brain barrier).

medulla

71

This is caused by hyperventilating, then going underwater. The problem is due to the extra-low pCO2 eliminating the urge to breathe, until oxygen level is so low that unconsciousness results.

shallow water blackout