Flashcards in Ch.23 Deck (71):
The region of the respiratory tract where air moves in and out; from external nares to terminal bronchioles.
conducting division (zone)
The region of the respiratory tract where gas exchange occurs; alveoli and respiratory bronchioles
respiratory division (zone)
The airway from nose to larynx - that part in the head and neck.
upper respiratory tract
The airway from trachea through lungs - that part in the thorax.
lower respiratory tract
The reason you have well-vascularized, highly folded nasal conchae
warm, humidify, filter the air
The only region of the pharynx lined with ciliated epithelium.
The epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, and cricoid cartilage are all part of the ...
The opening between the vocal cords is called the...
C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage support the wall of the....
purpose of the trachealis muscle
constricts to increase airway resistance
lung with 3 lobes
lung with cardiac notch
This happens to increase airway resistance within the lungs
This division of the autonomic nervous system stimulates bronchodilation
Main component of connective tissue in the lungs.
Airways with a diameter of <1mm, no cartilage
4 distinct layers of serous membrane associated with the lungs
visceral and parietal pleura of each lung
We say lungs are ____, because a small change in transpulmonary pressure means a large change in volume.
This component of alveolar fluid reduces its surface tension.
Which pressure is always lower: intrapleural or intrapulmonary?
True or false: intrapulmonary pressure is always lower than atmospheric pressure
Air in the pleural cavity
Blood in the pleural cavity.
Collapse of a lung
During quiet inspiration, the intrapleural pressure is commonly ___ mm Hg, and the intrapulmonary pressure is _____ mm Hg, which is (higher or lower) than atmospheric P.
754; 757- lower
During expiration, the intrapleural P (rises or falls) to _____ mm Hg, and the intrapulmonary pressures (rises or falls) to _____ mm Hg - (higher or lower) than atmospheric P.
rises-756; rises-763 - higher
Which is more affected in restrictive disorders such as emphysema - inhalation, or exhalation?
Formula for alveolar ventilation rate
respiratory rate X (tidal volume - dead air space)
Which type of breathing reduces alveolar ventilation: shallow, or deep?
The 3 vital reflex centers (cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory) are located in this part of the brain.
Another name for the inspiratory center in the medulla
DRG, dorsal respiratory group
Another name for the expiratory center in the medulla.
VRG, ventral respiratory group
Spinal nerves that supply the intercostal muscles
Spinal nerves that supply the diaphragm.
Specific nerves that supply the diaphragm
Location in the brain of the pneumotaxic and apneustic centers
Basic effect of the pneumotaxic center.
Basic effect (we think) of the apneustic center
True or false: the movement of air into and out of the respiratory system is called gas exchange
The exchange of respiratory gases in the lungs.
The exchange of respiratory gases in the systemic tissues.
This law states that the contribution to the total pressure of each gas in a mixture is proportional to its percentage of total number of molecules
This law states that pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional.
This law states that the amount of a gas that dissolves in water is determined not only by its partial pressure, but also by its solubility in water.
The partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in alveolar air are...
104 mm Hg, 40 mm Hg
The function of the type II pulmonary cells (also called septal cells or great alveolar cells).
These cells are responsible for removing debris within the alveoli.
The name of the cell type that forms most of the alveolar wall
type I pulmonary (squamous alveolar)
The structure through which gas exchange in the lungs occurs.
Thickness of the respiratory membrane
Oxygen first comes in contact with this part of the respiratory membrane, after dissolving in alveolar fluid.
squamous alveolar (type I pulmonary epithelial)
Carbon dioxide first comes in contact with this part of the respiratory membrane, before diffusing in external respiration.
Capillary endothelial cell
In this disorder, the accumulation of fluids separates the pulmonary capillaries from the alveolar walls, increasing the distance of diffusion and reducing gas exchange.
When air flow (ventilation) to a part of a lung decreases, blood flow (perfusion) to that same area (increases or decreases).
When air flow to a particular region of the lung is high, (bronchoconstriction or bronchodilation) will occur to shift fresh air to other parts of the lung.
Partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in tissue fluid, systemic venous blood, and pulmonary arterial blood
40 mm Hg, 46 mm Hg
The percent saturation of hemoglobin in venous blood (resting value).
At 75% saturation, how many oxygen molecules (on average) is each hemoglobin molecule carrying?
3 oxygen molecules per hemoglobin
When pH decreases or temperature increases, the ability of hemoglobin to hold oxygen (increases or decreases).
The enzyme in RBCs that is essential to carbon dioxide transport.
When pCO2 of blood increases, pH (increases or decreases).
When bicarbonate ions diffuse out of RBCs in systemic capillaries, this ion shifts into the RBCs to provide electrical and osmotic balance.
When hemoglobin gives up oxygen, it can more easily pick up carbon dioxide; this is known as the ...
The percentage of carbon dioxide carried as bicarbonate, carbaminohemoglobin, and physically dissolved CO2 in systemic venous blood.
70%, 23%, 7%
These visceral sensory receptors, found in aortic and carotid bodies, respond especially to hypercapnia and acidemia, but also to hypoxia.
These 2 pairs of cranial nerves carry impulses concerning blood pressure and blood chemistry from the aortic sinus and body and from the carotid sinuses and bodies.
The part of the brain with central chemoreceptors, responsive expecially to hypercapnia (since hydrogen ions can't cross the blood-brain barrier).