Ch26 - Terms Flashcards Preview

World History - 10th > Ch26 - Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch26 - Terms Deck (43):
1

What is a Cold War?

A war fought not with military weapons but with words, diplomacy, and ideology.

2

Between what to rules of through was the "Cold War" fought?

The Communist bloc and the free world

3

What were the "People's Republics"?

Soviet-dominated puppet governments which were established by the Communists.

Poland
Hungary
Romania
Bulgarian
Czechoslovakia

4

What was the "Iron Curtain"?

The term coined by Winston Churchill for the tyranny and oppression of the Soviet Union over Eastern Europe.

5

What U.S. program extended credits amounting to $20 billion in the name of providing a bulwark against further Communist expansion in Europe?

Marshall Plan
(Also known as the European Recovery Plan)

6

What was the American effort that rescued West Berlin from the Soviet blockade by flying in food, medicine, fuel, and other necessities from 1948 to 1949?

Berlin Airlift

7

What does NATO stand for?

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

8

What did NATO do?

Provided for mutual consultation and defense among Western nations whenever "the territorial integrity, political independence, or security of any parties is threatened".

9

What was the "Warsaw Pact"?

The Soviet equivalent of NATO.
Came to the defense of Soviet nations whenever territory, political independence, or security is threatened.

10

What is the EEC?

European Economic Community

It formed the European Common Market.

11

What organization of former British possessions was established prior to World War II.

British Commonwealth of Nations

12

What Communist terrorist organization kidnapped and murdered Italian premier Aldo Moro in 1978?

Red Brigades

13

What plan was initiated by Mao Tse-tung in 1953 and increased China's industrial output at a rapid rate with a devastating cost in human lives?

Five-Year Plan

14

What plan was initiated by Mao Tse-tung in 1958 and attempted to raise China's level of industrial development but led to economic disaster?

Great Leap Forward

15

What was Mao Tse-tung's attempt to purge China of all "counter-revolutionaries" and foreign influences?

Cultural Revolution

16

What was the name for Communist-encouraged gangs composed of students and young people who filled China's streets with noisy demonstrations, marches, and protests; also attached Chinese intellectuals and professionals?

Red Guards

17

What is a policy of refusing to use all available military strength to win a complete victory?

limited warfare

18

What revolutionary movement led by Fidel Castro toppled the Cuban government in 1959?

26th of July Movement

19

What conflict between the Soviet Union and the US concern the construction of missile bases on Cuba?

Cuban Missile Crisis

20

What is the name for Communist revolutionaries in Nicaragua who, with Cuban aid, ousted President Anastasio Somoza in 1979?

Sandinistas

21

In what conflict did Egyptian/Syrian forces attack Israel on the Jewish highest holy day?

Yom Kippur War (1973-1974)

Although Israeli forces finally repulsed their enemies, Israeli losses were much greater than in previous Arab-Israeli conflicts.

22

What organization is made up of oil-rich Arab countries?

OPEC
(Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)

23

What is the peaceful settlement between Israeli Prime Minister Begin and Egyptian President Sadat in which Israel agreed to withdraw completely from the Sinai Peninsula from 1979 to 1982?

Camp David Accords

24

What is the PLO?

Palestinian Liberation Organization

An Arab terrorist organization.

25

What is apartheid?

a policy of racial segregation formerly practiced in South Africa

26

What is ANC?

African National Congress

a Communist organization active in South Africa

27

What are Ho Chi Minh's Communist forces called?

Vietminh

28

What is the name of the Communist guerrillas that began a campaign of terrorism and subversion in the villages of South Vietnam?

Viet Cong

29

What is the name of the North Vietnamese invasion route and supply trail?

Ho Chi Minh Trail

30

What resolution was passed by Congress in August 1964 and provided legal justification for US military involvement in Vietnam?

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

31

What was the large-scale Communist attack against 30 South Vietnamese cities and several US military installations?

Tet Offensive

32

What was the policy of gradually withdrawing US troops and replacing them with South Vietnamese forces?

Vietnamization

33

What nuclear weapon is more powerful than the atomic bomb?

Hydrogen bomb

34

What French word conveys the idea of reducing tension or hostility between nations?

detente

35

In what treaties, with similar names, did the US and the Soviet Union agree to limit the production of nuclear arms and reduce nuclear weapons stockpiles?

SALT I
SALT II

36

What was the world's first man-made satellite?

Sputnik I

37

What was President Reagan's offensive policy of preemptive strikes to stop Communism before it could attach and enslave a country?

Reagan Doctrine

38

What is the name of freedom fighters who fought against the Communist Sandinistas in Nicaragua with US aid under President Reagan?

Contras

39

What is a system of space-age weaponry designed to destroy enemy ICBMs in flight?

Strategic Defense Initiative

40

In what movement did Polish nationalists stand up to the Soviets by refusing to work until their demands for more freedom were met?

Solidarity

41

What was the INF Treaty?

Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty

It was intended to limit nuclear arms in the Soviet Union and the United States.

42

What word means "restructuring" and referred to the rebuilding of Russia's economic and political system based on a democratic, free enterprise model?

Perestroika

43

What word means "openness" and referred to Communist foreign policy, claiming that they wanted world peace and had no more plans of conquest?

Glasnost