Flashcards in Ch26 - Terms Deck (43):
What is a Cold War?
A war fought not with military weapons but with words, diplomacy, and ideology.
Between what to rules of through was the "Cold War" fought?
The Communist bloc and the free world
What were the "People's Republics"?
Soviet-dominated puppet governments which were established by the Communists.
What was the "Iron Curtain"?
The term coined by Winston Churchill for the tyranny and oppression of the Soviet Union over Eastern Europe.
What U.S. program extended credits amounting to $20 billion in the name of providing a bulwark against further Communist expansion in Europe?
(Also known as the European Recovery Plan)
What was the American effort that rescued West Berlin from the Soviet blockade by flying in food, medicine, fuel, and other necessities from 1948 to 1949?
What does NATO stand for?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
What did NATO do?
Provided for mutual consultation and defense among Western nations whenever "the territorial integrity, political independence, or security of any parties is threatened".
What was the "Warsaw Pact"?
The Soviet equivalent of NATO.
Came to the defense of Soviet nations whenever territory, political independence, or security is threatened.
What is the EEC?
European Economic Community
It formed the European Common Market.
What organization of former British possessions was established prior to World War II.
British Commonwealth of Nations
What Communist terrorist organization kidnapped and murdered Italian premier Aldo Moro in 1978?
What plan was initiated by Mao Tse-tung in 1953 and increased China's industrial output at a rapid rate with a devastating cost in human lives?
What plan was initiated by Mao Tse-tung in 1958 and attempted to raise China's level of industrial development but led to economic disaster?
Great Leap Forward
What was Mao Tse-tung's attempt to purge China of all "counter-revolutionaries" and foreign influences?
What was the name for Communist-encouraged gangs composed of students and young people who filled China's streets with noisy demonstrations, marches, and protests; also attached Chinese intellectuals and professionals?
What is a policy of refusing to use all available military strength to win a complete victory?
What revolutionary movement led by Fidel Castro toppled the Cuban government in 1959?
26th of July Movement
What conflict between the Soviet Union and the US concern the construction of missile bases on Cuba?
Cuban Missile Crisis
What is the name for Communist revolutionaries in Nicaragua who, with Cuban aid, ousted President Anastasio Somoza in 1979?
In what conflict did Egyptian/Syrian forces attack Israel on the Jewish highest holy day?
Yom Kippur War (1973-1974)
Although Israeli forces finally repulsed their enemies, Israeli losses were much greater than in previous Arab-Israeli conflicts.
What organization is made up of oil-rich Arab countries?
(Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
What is the peaceful settlement between Israeli Prime Minister Begin and Egyptian President Sadat in which Israel agreed to withdraw completely from the Sinai Peninsula from 1979 to 1982?
Camp David Accords
What is the PLO?
Palestinian Liberation Organization
An Arab terrorist organization.
What is apartheid?
a policy of racial segregation formerly practiced in South Africa
What is ANC?
African National Congress
a Communist organization active in South Africa
What are Ho Chi Minh's Communist forces called?
What is the name of the Communist guerrillas that began a campaign of terrorism and subversion in the villages of South Vietnam?
What is the name of the North Vietnamese invasion route and supply trail?
Ho Chi Minh Trail
What resolution was passed by Congress in August 1964 and provided legal justification for US military involvement in Vietnam?
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
What was the large-scale Communist attack against 30 South Vietnamese cities and several US military installations?
What was the policy of gradually withdrawing US troops and replacing them with South Vietnamese forces?
What nuclear weapon is more powerful than the atomic bomb?
What French word conveys the idea of reducing tension or hostility between nations?
In what treaties, with similar names, did the US and the Soviet Union agree to limit the production of nuclear arms and reduce nuclear weapons stockpiles?
What was the world's first man-made satellite?
What was President Reagan's offensive policy of preemptive strikes to stop Communism before it could attach and enslave a country?
What is the name of freedom fighters who fought against the Communist Sandinistas in Nicaragua with US aid under President Reagan?
What is a system of space-age weaponry designed to destroy enemy ICBMs in flight?
Strategic Defense Initiative
In what movement did Polish nationalists stand up to the Soviets by refusing to work until their demands for more freedom were met?
What was the INF Treaty?
Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty
It was intended to limit nuclear arms in the Soviet Union and the United States.
What word means "restructuring" and referred to the rebuilding of Russia's economic and political system based on a democratic, free enterprise model?