Ch.3: Matter and Energy Flashcards Preview

CHEMISTRY > Ch.3: Matter and Energy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.3: Matter and Energy Deck (41)
Loading flashcards...
1

______, anything that occupies space and has mass

matter

2

Matter is ultimately composed of _____, submicroscopic particles that are the fundamental building blocks of matter

atoms

3

_________ two or more atoms joined to one another in specific geometric arrangements

molecules

4

The 3 common states of matter are

solid
liquid
gas

5

4 Characteristics of Solid

closed together
definite shape
definite volume
incompressible

6

4 Characteristics of LIquid

close together
indefinite shape
definite volume
incompressible

7

4 Characteristics of Gas

far apart
indefinite shape
indefinite volume
compressible

8

Solid matters may be __________, in which case its atoms or molecules arrange in geometric patterns with long-range, repeating order

crystalline

9

_________ its atoms do not have a long range order (rubber, plastic, glass)

amorphous

10

A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

element

11

a substance composed of two or more elements in fixed definite proportions. MORE COMMON

compound

12

______________ mixture the composition varies from one region to another

heterogenous

13

___________ mixture the composition is the same throughout

homogenous

14

A ________ property is one that a substance displays without changing its composition. SHAPE, PHYSICAL STATE, SIZE, APPEARANCE, ODOR, TASTE, MELTING POINT, BOILING POINT, DENSITY can go back

PHYSICAL

15

A _________ property is one that a substance displays only through changing its composition. CORROSIVENESS, FLAMMABILITY, ACIDITY, AND TOXICITY

CHEMICAL

16

the capacity to do work

energy

17

The result of a force acting on a distance

work

18

______ ___ ________ ___ ______: states that energy is neither created nor destroyed

law of conservation of energy

19

_________ _______: energy assosciated with motion

kinetic energy

20

the energy assosciated with its position or composition

potential energy

21

ENERGY CONVERSION: cal= joules
1 calorie

4.184 joules

22

ENERGY CONVERSION Cal= cal
1 Cal

1000 calories

23

the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degrees celcius

calorie (cal)

24

objects with high potential energy tend to be

unstable

25

Chemical reactions that RELEASE ENERGY (HEAT) are

exothermic

26

Chemical reactions that ABSORB ENERGY are

endothermic

27

a measure of its thermal energy

temperature

28

which has units of energy, is the transfer or exchange of the thermal energy caused by temperature difference

heat

29

TEMPERATURE SCALE: Fahrenheit
Freezing point
boiling point
room temperature

32 degrees
212 degrees
72 degrees

30

TEMPERATURE SCALE: Celsius
Freezing point
boiling point
room temperature

0 degrees
100 degrees
22 degrees

31

TEMPERATURE SCALE: Kelvin
Freezing point
boiling point
room temperature

273
373
295

32

CONVERSION EQUATIONS: Fahrenheit to Celsius

C= 5/9(F-32)

33

CONVERSION EQUATIONS: Celsius to Fahrenheit

F= 9/5 (C) + 32

34

CONVERSION EQUATIONS: Celsius to Kelvin

K= C +273

35

The _____ ________ of a substance is the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a given amount of the substance by 1 degree celcius.

heat capacity

36

EQUATION OF HEAT:

heat= mass * specific heat capacity * change in temperature

37

EQUAATION OF SPECIFIC HEAT

Specific Heat= Heat/ (Mass* Change of Temp)

38

used to calculate the energy value of food

calorimeter

39

1 carb = __ kcal

4

40

1 fat = ___ kcal

1

41

1 protein = __ kcal

4