– the space within the cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane consisting of the cytosol and the organelles
the liquid found within cells (mainly water with dissolved solutes), the intracellular fluid
The cytosol is therefore the fluid component of the cytoplasm that surrounds organelles
They are specialised structures within the cell that have characteristic shapes and perform specific functions like cellular growth, producing ATP, maintenance and manufacturing proteins
6 types of organelles include:
- endoplasmic reticulum
- golgi complex
What are organelles? Name six organelles.
Largest organelle (5 μm in diameter)
most cells have one nucleus with some cells being anuclear (no nucleus) or multinuclear (more than one nucleus)
Surrounded by a double membrane called a nuclear envelope which is perforated by nuclear pores formed by rings of protein
the material inside the nucleus is called nucleoplasm which includes chromatin (thread-like matter) composed of DNA and protein
nucleoli – one or more dark masses where ribosomes are produced
Just inside the nuclear envelope is a narrow but densely fibrous zone called nuclear lamina (see diagram below) which supports nuclear envelope and pores
See Page 83 diagram
What is the structure of the nucleus and what is inside it?
to house the genetic material of the cell (DNA) that ultimately controls all cell processes
also manufactures ribosomes in nucleoli
What are the functions of the nucleus?
red blood cells
Which cells are anuclear?
skeletal muscle cells and some liver cells
What cells are multinuclear?
system of interconnected channels called cisternae enclosed by a unit membrane
parallel, flattened membranous sacs covered with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum, RER) or lacking ribosomes (smooth endoplasmic reticulum, SER) and continuous with nuclear envelope (RER)
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER).
(a) Rough ER. (b) Smooth ER and an inclusion (oil droplet). (c) Structure of the endoplasmic reticulum, with rough and smooth regions.
What is the structure of the Endoplasmic Reticulum?
synthesis of glycoproteins and phospholipids and proteins of plasma membrane (RER)
synthesis of fatty acids and steroids (SER)
detoxification of alcohol and other drugs (SER)
What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?
Small granules of protein and one type of ribonucleic acid (rRNA)
found in nucleoli, free in cytosol and on rough ER
Consists of two subunits, one large & one small, which are produced separately in nucleolus and assemble with mRNA in cytoplasm to form functional ribosomes
Ribosome structure describe
across, cell, process
trans = , cyt = , osis =
Uses directions in messenger RNA to assemble amino acids into proteins specified by the genetic code (DNA)
consists of 3-20 cisternae, small, flattened and curved membranous sacs with bulging, swollen edges that resemble a stack of pita bread
Golgi complex structure?
modifies, sorts, packages and transports proteins received from the RER
forms secretory vesicles that discharge processed proteins via exocytosis into ECF
forms membrane vesicles that transport fresh protein and phospholipids to plasma membrane
forms transport vesicles that become lysosomes
Golgi complex function is?
loosen, dissolve; body
lyso = , some =
auto = , phagy =
auto = , lysis =
mito = , chondr =
centro = , some =