Ch4-P115-119Reverse Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch4-P115-119Reverse Deck (22):

 deals with parent–offspring and larger family relationships to discern and predict patterns of inheritance within a family line. 

Mendelian genetics


uses the techniques of cytology and microscopy to study chromosomes and their relationship to hereditary traits. 



 uses the techniques of biochemistry to study the structure and function of DNA. 

Molecular genetics


 comprehensively studies the entire DNA endowment of an individual (the genome), how it influences health and disease, and how this knowledge can be used to prevent, treat, or cure diseases.

Genomic medicine



DNA is wound into thin threads called?


  1. histone protein
  2. eight
  3. histones

In the non-dividing state DNA molecules are compacted and coiled around a core particle called _______ which is a disc shaped cluster of ______ proteins called _______.


  1. two
  2. sister


When it is preparing to divide DNA copies itself to form ____ parallel _______ chromatids of a chromosome.



DNA is a polymer of



  1. phosphate group
  2. sugar
    • ribose for (RNA) or 
    • deoxyribose for (DNA)
  3. nitrogenous base (single or double ringed)
    • in the picture below = adenine

Each DNA nucleotide consists of


  • Purines - double ring
    • guanine
    • adenine
  • Pyrimidines - single ring
    • uracil - RNA only
    • thymine - DNA only
    • cytosine – both
  • DNA bases =CTAG
  • RNA bases = CUAG

Name the nitrogenous bases, their ring types, and their groups.


  1. double helix
  2. phosphate
  3. sugar deoxyribose
  4. nitrogenous bases
  5. hydrogen

The structure of DNA, commonly described as a ____ _____ , resembles a spiral staircase. Each sidepiece is a backbone composed of ______ groups alternating with the ______ ______. The steplike connections between the backbones are pairs of _____ _____. The bases face the inside of the helix and hold the two backbones together with _____ bonds.


 by hydrogen bonds

How are the nitrogenous bases in DNA bonded?


A-T and C-G


adenine - thymine and cytosine - guanine

What are the base pairings for DNA?


that one strand determines base sequence of other strand.

What is the Law of complementary base pairing?


  1. messenger RNA (mRNA)
  2. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  3. transfer RNA (tRNA).

There are several forms of RNA in a cell, but what are the three forms of RNA in a cell that are directly involved in producing proteins?



Can DNA produce proteins without the help of RNA?


 interpret the code in DNA and use those instructions to synthesize proteins.

RNA is a disposable molecule that works mainly in the cytoplasm, while DNA is irreplaceable and remains safely behind in the nucleus, “giving orders” from there. 

The essential function of the three principal RNAs is to? What type of molecule is RNA and where does it mainly work?

How important is DNA and where does it remain?


 one protein

A gene is a sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for


  1. all the genes of one person
  2. 30 -35,000 genes
  3. 98%

  1. Genome is?
  2. How many genes do humans have?
  3. How much of the DNA is non-coding "junk" or regulatory?


RNA is smaller than DNA

transfer RNA (tRNA) has 70 - 90 bases
messenger RNA (mRNA) (the largest) has over 10,000 bases

In comparision DNA has over a billion base pairs 

Is RNA smaller or larger than DNA (ie fewer bases)? Explain range of bases of RNA compared to DNA.


  • RNA has only one nucleotide chain (not a double helix)
  • ribose replaces deoxyribose as the sugar
  • uracil replaces thymine as a nitrogenous base

Explain structure difference between RNA and DNA, ie chain type and the chemical make up.


RNA interprets DNA code and does protein synthesis in the cytoplasm not the nucleus.

See RNA strand below of a single strand.

What are the essential functions of RNA?