deals with parent–offspring and larger family relationships to discern and predict patterns of inheritance within a family line.
uses the techniques of cytology and microscopy to study chromosomes and their relationship to hereditary traits.
uses the techniques of biochemistry to study the structure and function of DNA.
comprehensively studies the entire DNA endowment of an individual (the genome), how it influences health and disease, and how this knowledge can be used to prevent, treat, or cure diseases.
DNA is wound into thin threads called?
In the non-dividing state DNA molecules are compacted and coiled around a core particle called _______ which is a disc shaped cluster of ______ proteins called _______.
When it is preparing to divide DNA copies itself to form ____ parallel _______ chromatids of a chromosome.
DNA is a polymer of
- phosphate group
- ribose for (RNA) or
- deoxyribose for (DNA)
nitrogenous base (single or double ringed)
- in the picture below = adenine
Each DNA nucleotide consists of
Purines - double ring
Pyrimidines - single ring
uracil - RNA only
thymine - DNA only
cytosine – both
DNA bases =CTAG
RNA bases = CUAG
- uracil - RNA only
- thymine - DNA only
- cytosine – both
Name the nitrogenous bases, their ring types, and their groups.
The structure of DNA, commonly described as a ____ _____ , resembles a spiral staircase. Each sidepiece is a backbone composed of ______ groups alternating with the ______ ______. The steplike connections between the backbones are pairs of _____ _____. The bases face the inside of the helix and hold the two backbones together with _____ bonds.
by hydrogen bonds
How are the nitrogenous bases in DNA bonded?
A-T and C-G
adenine - thymine and cytosine - guanine
What are the base pairings for DNA?
that one strand determines base sequence of other strand.
What is the Law of complementary base pairing?
messenger RNA (mRNA)
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
transfer RNA (tRNA).
There are several forms of RNA in a cell, but what are the three forms of RNA in a cell that are directly involved in producing proteins?
Can DNA produce proteins without the help of RNA?
interpret the code in DNA and use those instructions to synthesize proteins.
RNA is a disposable molecule that works mainly in the cytoplasm, while DNA is irreplaceable and remains safely behind in the nucleus, “giving orders” from there.
The essential function of the three principal RNAs is to? What type of molecule is RNA and where does it mainly work?
How important is DNA and where does it remain?
A gene is a sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for
all the genes of one person
30 -35,000 genes
How many genes do humans have?
How much of the DNA is non-coding "junk" or regulatory?
RNA is smaller than DNA
transfer RNA (tRNA) has 70 - 90 bases
messenger RNA (mRNA) (the largest) has over 10,000 bases
In comparision DNA has over a billion base pairs
Is RNA smaller or larger than DNA (ie fewer bases)? Explain range of bases of RNA compared to DNA.
RNA has only one nucleotide chain (not a double helix)
ribose replaces deoxyribose as the sugar
uracil replaces thymine as a nitrogenous base
Explain structure difference between RNA and DNA, ie chain type and the chemical make up.
RNA interprets DNA code and does protein synthesis in the cytoplasm not the nucleus.
See RNA strand below of a single strand.
What are the essential functions of RNA?